Amwell Twp. (pp. 652-672)

History of Washington County, Pennsylvania*

AMWELL was one of the thirteen original townships erected in 1781, and at that time embraced its present territory and the present townships of Morris and Franklin

AMWELL was one of the thirteen original townships erected in 1781, and at that time embraced its present territory and the present townships of Morris and Franklin. On the 13th of March, 1788, the township of Morris was erected, comprising the southwest quarter of this township. On the 23rd of April, 1792, the township of Canton was erected, taking from Amwell that part of its territory that lay north of Morris. Since that time its territory has remained the same, with the exception of a slight change in the boundary line between it and Strabane township in October, 1830. Following is a list of persons elected to the office of justice of the peace 1 in Amwell from its formation to the present time:

Abner Howell July 15, 1781.
John Craig July 15, 1781.
William McFarland Sept. 30, 1788.
Ziba Cook April 2, 1802.
Milton B. Curry April 11, 1805.
William Craig Oct. 24,1807.
Jonas Condit Dec. 20, 1813.
William Hallam Dec. 23, 1818.
Abraham Van Voorhes March 6, 1823.
John Carter Dec. 8, 1823.
William Lindley March 4, 1824.
Ellis Hughes March 7, 1825.
William Creacraft Oct. 2, 1832.
Thomas Vanemen May 8, 1832.
David P. Hathaway March 2, 1833.
David I. Evans June 13, 1834.
Luther Day March 15, 1836.
Samuel L. Hughes April 14, 1840.
David I. Evans April 14, 1840.
David I. Evans April 15, 1845.
Samuel L. Hughes April 15, 1845.
Silas Parker April 11, 1848.
Samuel L. Hughes April 9, 1850.
Silas Parker April 13, 1853.
Samuel L. Hughes April 10, 1855.
Silas Parker April 2, 1858.
Samuel L. Hughes April 10, 1860.
Robert Stockdale April 14, 1863.
Abel M. Evans April 10, 1867.
Samuel L. Hughes April 9, 1867.
O. T. Lyon April 12, 1872.
Robert Horn April 12, 1872.
O. T. Lyons Jan. 20, 1874.
Samuel L. Hughes March 17, 1875.
Frank F. Iams March 21, 1877.
John Closser March 30, 1880.

[1From the erection of the township in 1781 till 1803 it was an independent district, Morris, however, was erected from its territory in 1788. By the act of 1803 Amwell and Morris became District No. 10, and so continued till 1838, when each became independent, and the office of justice of the peace became elective.]

Many of the English and Scotch emigrants who came over to New England removed thence to New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and some to Virginia. As early as 1768 a few of these families came and settled on the north fork of Ten-Mile Creek, and their descendants are there to this day. Notable among these early settlers were the Banes and the Enochs (the latter in what afterwards became West Bethlehem), who brought with them their love of religious liberty, fostered by the teachings and example of Roger Williams. In 1772 a Baptist Church was organized, and in 1776 the Redstone Baptist Association was formed, having six constituent churches, three of which were in Washington County as originally erected. In 1773 fifteen or twenty families from Morris County, N.J. (some of whom were descendants of the Puritans), emigrated with their families to the Ten-Mile region. Among these were the Cooks, Lindleys, and others. These were representatives of the Presbyterian faith, and in 1781 they established the churches that have long been known as the Upper and Lower Ten-Mile. These people were all driven from homes by the Indians in 1774, and on their return the next year built for safety strong block-houses as places of refuge in times of danger.

About the year 1768 five brothers—Jesse, Nathan, Isaac, Ellis, and Joseph Bane—came to Amwell township, whither they had emigrated from the West Branch of the Potomac River in Virginia, to which section they had migrated from New England. The father of this family was a native of Scotland, and the mother was from Wales. The sister, Elizabeth, who came with them became the wife of James Tucker, a furnace-man and moulder, who died about 1818. Jesse, Nathan, Isaac, and Ellis Bane all settled upon adjoining farms one mile west of Amity village, in this township, but Joseph preferred the life of a hunter and did not invest largely in landed estate. They afterwards warranted and patented their lands as follows: Nathan Bane, warrant Feb. 20, 1786; survey March 30, 1786, as "Bane's Fancy," contains three hundred and four acres. James Bane, warrant Feb.20, 1786; survey March 30, 1786, as "Bane's Forest," contains three hundred and thirty-six acres. Isaac Bane, warrant without date; survey Nov. 4, 1785, as "Fickle," contains one hundred and forty-nine acres. The Bane families were all Baptists, and were the prime movers in the organization and establishment of the church of that denomination, which is called the Ten-Mile Baptist Church, one and one-half miles west of Amity. Ellis Bane in time removed from his home in Amwell township to Ryerson's Station, in Greene County, very near the State line, and died there, leaving a number of children. Nathan Bane, who died at an advanced age upon his Amwell farm, left two sons, Abraham and Jacob, who also lived and died upon the homestead. An advertisement by three sons of Nathan Bane, dated Oct. 25, 1813, says that they had erected a new fulling mill on the Middle Fork of Ten-Mile Creek, about one hundred yards from the site of the old mill, and solicited the patronage of the vicinity.

Jesse Bane, the oldest of the five brothers, died upon his original farm at a very great age. Isaac Bane, who had married Sarah Ferguson before he left Virginia, was nearly ninety-three years old when he died at his home in Amwell. He left a family of four sons and five daughters. Daniel, the oldest, died in infancy, and Elizabeth died in1818. John married Polly Milliken, reared a large family, and died near Clarkstown. William Bane, another son, who married Polly McGuire, died in Illinois in 1856, leaving many descendants. Sarah Bane, who became the wife of Zebulon Cooper in 1818, removed with him to Butler County, in this State. She died there in 1840, and left a numerous family. Ruth Bane was the wife of Goodwin Goodrich, and lived and died at Clarksville, Greene Co., Pa., her family being one son and two daughters. Rebecca Bane married John Lacock, reared a number of children, and died in 1858. Anna Bane's husband was Ira Lacock; their family consisted of four sons and one daughter. She died in 1874, and Mr. Lacock in 1876, in Washington, in this county, and both are buried in the cemetery at that place. Isaac Bane, Jr., son of Isaac Bane, married Anna Wick, and very soon after their marriage they purchased "Forlon Hope," the tract of land in this township which was located by William Vineard. They lived and died upon this farm, he in 1854, aged seventy-eight years, and his wife in 1857, at eighty-one years of age. Both were buried in the cemetery at Amity village. Their farm is now owned by Charles Banfield. Their children married and settled in life as follows: Mary, the oldest, was the wife of William Ringland, and her children were two sons and two daughters. They have all died save Mary Ringland, the youngest, who became Mrs. Nicodemus Moniger, and lives in Marshall, Conn. She has two sons and one daughter. The second child of Isaac and Anna Bane was a son, Thomas L. Bane, who was a physician, and studied for his profession with Dr. George Cook at New Lisbon, Columbiana Co., Ohio. He married his cousin, Matilda L. Wick, by whom he had two sons, Lycurgus G. and Thomas L. Bane, Jr. Lycurgus G. died at the age of twenty-four years, leaving no heirs, and Thomas L. Jr., died in Geneva, Ashtabula Co., Ohio, at forty years of age, leaving a wife and three daughters. Thomas L. Bane, Sr., and his wife, Matilda L. Bane, were devoted members of the Disciple or Christian Church, with which they united in 1838 at Youngstown, Ohio, being baptized at that time and place by Rev. John Henry. Mrs. Bane died in Youngstown Ohio, in 1845, and Mr. Bane died in Geneva, Ohio, in the seventy-first year of his age.

Deborah Bane was the third child of Isaac and Anna Bane. She married John Curry, and became the mother of six children, five sons and one daughter. Of these, Albert G. Curry died single in 1859, in the thirtieth year of his age. Thomas B. Curry, the second child, married Sarah Frazer, and resides on Brush Run, in this county. Milton and Mary Curry, twins, were the next children of Deborah Bane Curry. Milton emigrated to Illinois, where he lives with his family, and Mary, who married Aaron Bane, a distant relative, has two sons and one daughter. The two youngest children are sons, and both, unmarried, live upon the homestead with their mother, Mrs. Deborah Curry, the father having died Aug. 6, 1880. Henry Wick Bane, the second son and fourth child of Isaac and Anna Wick Bane, emigrated to Columbiana County, Ohio, in 1831, and is now a resident of Portage County, in that state. His wife was Ann M. Rickart, of Youngstown, Ohio, and two sons and three daughters compose their family. The oldest of this last-named family is Harriet A., who became the wife of William C. Van Kirk in 1864. They live in Amwell township, their farm adjoining that known as "Forlorn Hope," formerly owned by Isaac Bane, Jr., but now in the possession of Charles Banfield. Sarah E. Bane, second child of Henry Wick Bane, married James M. Hughes in 1867. Their home is in Washington, in this county. Mary R. Bane, third daughter and third child of Henry Wick Bane, was married in 1869 to James Koontz, Jr., and their home is also in Washington. Benjamin F. Bane, the fourth child of Henry Wick Bane, is living at Clarksburg, West Va., while the fifth child, Allison C. Bane, is a merchant in Allegheny City, and both are unmarried. Asenath Bane died in infancy. William died in his second, and Orlando in his ninth year. James Blaine Bane, the youngest child of Isaac, Jr. and Anna Wick Bane, is a Cumberland Presbyterian minister. He emigrated to Athens County, Ohio, in1840, and married Louisa Fuller. They now reside in Beverly, Washington Co., Ohio.

Joseph Bane, one of the five brothers Bane, never married. He was elected captain of a company of militia, and one time with his company followed a band of Indians to the west side of the Ohio River, crossing the stream below Wheeling. They overtook and attacked the enemy, but the battle resulted in victory for the Indians. Bane and his men beat a hasty retreat, but Bane was shot. He was carried by his men five days on horseback back to Amity village, where he soon recovered and went to Kentucky. On his way out he killed two Indians and took their scalps, which he sent to his friends in Amwell township. He died in Kentucky.

In the autobiography of Thaddeus Dodd, written in 1764 (published by the Rev. Cephas Dodd, in the Presbyterian Magazine, August, 1854), he says, "I was born near Newark, N. J., on the 7th of March, 1740 [O.S.]. From there my parents removed to Mendham, N. J., where the greater part of my life was spent." He was the son of Stephen Dodd, a native of Guilford, Conn., and grandson of Daniel Dodd. (The brothers of Stephen Dodd were Daniel and John, of whom Thaddeus Dodd speaks as his uncles.) He mentions his father's death as having occurred in the year the autobiography was written, and his conversion also occurred in June of that year. The following is from a historical sketch delivered at the centennial celebration of the Ten-Mile Churches, Aug. 28, 1879, by the Rev. James Allison:

"But it was not until seven long years after making a confession of faith, and in the thirty-first year of his age, that Thaddeus Dodd was permitted to enter Princeton College, then under the presidency of the celebrated Dr. John Witherspoon. He was graduated in the fall of 1773. Among his classmates were Revs. Drs. James Dunlap, John McKnight, John B. Smith, and Rev. William Graham. He was one year and a half in college with Dr. John McMillian, though not in the same class. Soon after graduation he went to Newark, N.J., where he married Miss Phoebe Baldwin, and entered upon the study of theology under the direction of Rev. Dr. McWhorter. One year later he removed to Morristown, N.J., and continued the same line of study under Rev. Dr. Hohnes, who had been his first instructor in Latin. He was licensed to preach the gospel by the Presbytery of New York, but there is no existing record of the date at which this took place. Through the winter of 1776-77 he suffered from a severe attack of inflammatory rheumatism. But in the month of March, though still feeble, he started upon a journey to the West. After preaching in parts of Virginia and Maryland, he crossed the mountains, visited the settlements on Georges Creek, Muddy Creek, and Dunlap's Creek, and then came to Ten-Mile. He remained here until August, preaching in private houses, in the woods, and in Lindley's and Bell's Forts. After his return to the East he was ordained by the Presbytery of New York as an evangelist on some day of the week preceding Sabbath, Oct. 19, 1777, as there is a record of baptisms by him on that Sabbath, in which it is said that this was the first Sabbath after his ordination.

"Shortly after this he left New Jersey with his wife and daughter three years old and a son still younger, accompanied by two brothers and their families. On the 10th of November they arrived at Patterson's Creek, Hamsphire County, Va., and after hearing of the formidable attack which had been made by the Indians upon Wheeling, and the consequent alarm and confusion prevailing in all the frontier settlements, it was thought best not to proceed any farther at that time. But in a few days he crossed the mountains alone, came to Ten-Mile, preached in the forts, and baptized the children. In a short time he returned to his family, and it is not known that he visited this place again until he brought his family and settled down permanently in the fall of 1779, one hundred years ago. In the interval he had not been idle but busily engaged in preaching the gospel in the adjacent parts of Virginia and Maryland, where no churches seem to have been then organized, at least there were no church buildings, as all the services were held at private houses or in the woods. He was entreated to remain, and inducements apparently stronger than any held out by Ten-Mile were brought to bear upon him, but he had given his pledge to the people here; his heart was here, and hither he came in September, 1779."

In a letter by the Rev. Dr. Jacob Lindley (one of Mr. Dodd's pupils from 1782 to 1784) he says, "In the latter part of 1785, I think, Mr. Dodd sold his farm where his school was, and moved into his lower congregation." It is evident from this that Mr. Dodd first resided in what is now Morris township, near the Lindleys, and from the survey books of the county it is found that he took out a warrant for a tract of land on the middle fork of Ten-Mile Creek, which was surveyed to him Nov. 22, 1786, as "Tusenheim," contains four hundred acres. On this tract he lived till his death, which occurred May 20, 1793. He left a wife, two sons, and three daughters. Both of the sons became physicians, and the elder, Cephas, became a minister of the Presbyterian Church, and the second successor of his father as pastor of the Ten-Mile congregations. The descendants of Mr. Dodd are numerous. Of the children none are living. There have been among them one minister, two elders, and two deacons in the Presbyterian Church, six physicians, and one lawyer. Thirty-five of the descendants are members of the Lower Ten-Mile congregation.

The Rev. James Allison, in the address before mentioned, says of the classical school founded by Mr. Dodd, "He felt the importance of a better common-school education, and in order to promote it he visited the schools, and counseled and encouraged instructors. But, for the special purpose of educating young men for the ministry, Mr. Dodd erected a building a short distance from his own dwelling, in which he opened a classical and mathematical school in the spring of 1782; of the five students present at the opening four are certainly known to have been looking to the ministry of the gospel as their life work. This school was successfully conducted for three years and a half. And he had nearly all the intervening time several students under him whose studies he directed. In the beginning of 1789, Mr. Dodd accepted the appointment of principal to the academy opened in the town of Washington on the 1st of April of that year, with the understanding that he was to hold the office only for one year, as he did not wish to relinquish the pastorate at Ten-Mile; at the expiration of the year he was constrained to continue three months longer. Some time during the following winter the courthouse, one of whose rooms had been occupied by the academy, was burned, and no other suitable building could be obtained."

Daniel Dodd, a brother of the Rev. Thaddeus Dodd, came out to this country soon after his brother, and settled near him. His name is mentioned in the survey of Jacob Cook and others as adjoining them. He purchased land which Nehemiah Scott patented, and where the village of Amity now stands, and laid out that town in 1797. He also purchased land adjoining that of John Carmichael, which was part of a tract patented by Carmichael and known by the name of "Cooks Delight." On this land Henry Wick at the time of purchase had a distillery. In 1799, Dodd sold the land to Wick. Mr. Dodd lived on the farm till his death. Daniel Dodd married Charity Freeman, and had one son and six daughters, --Mary, Ziba, Phebe, Azuba, and Sarah. They all removed West. The son, Daniel Freeman Dodd, remained in the township, and lived to an advanced age. He also left a son, Daniel Freeman Dodd, who died in the township in the fall of 1880.

The McCrackens were natives of the Highlands of Scotland, but early removed to County Down, Ireland, from which place, in about 1768, David McCracken emigrated to this country. After a short time spent in the East, he emigrated West and settled on the waters of Ten-Mile Creek, where he purchased a claim of a man who had made a clearing. This was the land which he afterwards purchased. It is understood that a tract, warranted and surveyed by Nathaniel Coleman, by the name of "Rabbit's Cove," and patent obtained July 2, 1790, was to be divided between Coleman and McCracken, and in which the following passage occurs; "In consideration of one hundred cents and divers other considerations to them well known." On this tract of land David McCracken lived the remainder of his days. He left four sons, Thomas, the eldest, was killed at a raising when a young man, the others emigrated to the West. The property is now owned by Andrew Vandyke and Joseph Hannah.

Andrew McCracken, a brother of David, remained in Ireland until 1792, when he emigrated to America and came directly to this county, and lived with his brother two years before he made a purchase of land. On the 12th of April, 1794, he bought sixty-three acres of land of Jacob Housong, and on the 10th of May, 1806, forty-one acres of William McClenahan. This land was part of a tract warranted to Luke Brown on the 28th of August, 1792, and in the survey was named "Desart." Brown sold to Housong on the 16th of October the same year. On this land Mr. McCracken passed the remainder of his days. He died in 1837 while on a visit to his daughter, Mrs. John Finacle, then living in Athens County, Ohio., He left two sons,--John and Archibald. John emigrated to Ohio, and later to Iowa, where he died. Archibald married Lusany, the daughter of Luther Axtell, Sr., and settled on the homestead where he was born and still resides at eighty-three years of age. M.L.A. McCracken, an attorney in Washington, is a son. The daughters of Andrew McCracken all married and emigrated to Ohio.

Maj. Daniel Axtell was an original purchaser of land of the proprietors of East and West Jersey, to which they obtained title in 1682. About the year 1740 he purchased a tract of two thousand acres, now in the township of Bedminster, Somerset Co., N.J. Within the succeeding ten years his death occurred, and the land came into possession of his son William, by whom part of it was sold in 1750 and part in 1760. Of his family three sons came to this county about 1780, and settled in Ten-Mile Creek. But like most of the settlers of that day they did not secure titles till several years later. At what time the warrant was secured and survey made of a tract of four hundred and four acres called "Green Mount" is not known; the patent was secured July 7, 1797. On the 6th of October 1799, one hundred acres was sold to James Tucker, and on the 10th of February, 1801, one hundred and thirty-seven acres to Jonas Conduit. Mr. Conduit lived there many years, and was appointed justice of the peace in 1813. These sales of land were made from the "Green Mount" tract.

A tract called "Winter Green," adjoining Caleb and Levi Lindley, Samuel Clutter, and others, had been warranted, surveyed, and patented to Ebenezer Goble, and part of it was purchased by Daniel Axtell, April 7, 1794, and on the 12th of February, 1798, Mr. Axtell sold one hundred and ten acres to Daniel Johnston. On the 28th of September 1795, Daniel Axtell was appointed attorney for the sale of a tract of land called "Pleasant Grove," belonging to Samuel Tuttle, of Morris County, N.J., and on the 21st of March 1796, he sold two hundred and eighteen acres of it to Co. Daniel McFarland. In the tax-list of 1784 the name of Thomas Axtell appears, but little is known of him or his descendants.

Caleb Goble had made application to the land-office for a tract of land lying on a small branch of Ten-Mile Creek, adjoining Samuel Craig, John Hughes, and William Bryson, which had been warranted and surveyed to him, and on the 5th of October, 1790, Goble conveyed to Luther Axtell all his right, title, and interest in the tract, and on the 9th of July, 1797, he received a patent for it. On the 27th of April, 1804, he conveyed fifty acres of it to Abigail Dickinson, and the same day one hundred and eight acres to Thomas Wier. On the remainder of this tract Luther Axtell resided till his death. He left four sons,--Daniel, the eldest, died at the age of twenty-four years; Silas settled in Greene County; Philip and Luther became ministers of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. The former is now in charge of the church of that denomination in East Pittsburgh, Allegheny Co., and the latter in charge of Pleasant Hill Church, East Bethlehem township, Washington County. Lusany, a daughter of Luther Axtell, Sr., became the wife of Archibald McCracken, who settled near the Axtells on the old McCracken homestead.

Col. Daniel McFarland emigrated from Scotland to Massachusetts, where he lived a number of years. He obtained a commission as colonel in the Continental army and served through the Revolution. At its close he came to this county well advanced in life, and with sons and daughters of mature years. He purchased of John Barber four hundred acres of land on the 1st of January, 1785, which was warranted to Barber, Sept. 17, 1784, surveyed as "Elk Lick," Jan. 20, 1785. On the 20th of June, 1791, he purchased of Ephraim Bates four hundred and nineteen acres on the middle fork of Ten-Mile, and on the 21st of March, 1796, purchased two hundred and eighteen acres of Daniel Axtell, attorney for Samuel Tuttle, of Morris County, N.J., which was surveyed to Tuttle as "Pleasant Grove." This last tract he made his homestead, and in 1817 died at the advanced age of eighty-seven years. His remains were buried in the graveyard of Lower Ten-Mile Church. His wife, Sarah, died in 1810, aged eighty years. His great-grandson, Abel M. Evans, Esq., of Ten-Mile village, resides on the old homestead. The property on which stood the old fulling-mill, owned and operated by Col. Daniel McFarland, is now owned by Mr.Overholt, of Westmoreland County.

William McFarland, a son of Col. Daniel, early took a commanding position in the county. He was appointed coroner of Washington County by the Supreme Executive Council in 1781, and was appointed justice of the peace of Amwell township, Sept. 30, 1788, and at the same time commissioned justice of the Court of Common Pleas of Washington County. He retained his office of justice of the peace till April 2, 1802, when he was succeeded by Ziba Cook, of Amity. He always endeavored to settle differences between contending parties without resort to legal measures, and his influence was felt for good throughout the community. He was an elder in the Lower Ten-Mile Church. His death occurred at the age of sixty-seven years. His children were Rebecca (Mrs. John Carter), James (the father of Judge N.C. McFarland, of Topeka, Kan.), Sarah (Mrs. Joseph Evans, Sr., whose son, Abel M. Evans, lives on the old homestead), Mary (Mrs. Ezra Dille), William S., Patty (who died at twenty-one years), Samuel McFarland (late of Washington, long known as a leading attorney and active in the temperance cause and the abolition of slavery), Phebe (Mrs. Silas Clark), Thomas (late of Bethlehem township), and Hannah (Mrs. Boyd), of Ohio.

Jacob Cook and his family were of those who came out in 1773 and settled on the waters of Ten-Mile Creek, at what was known as the Lower Settlement. The warrant for his land was not obtained until Feb. 28, 1785. It was situated on the north side of middle fork of Ten-Mile, adjoining lands of Jesse Bane, William Wilson, and Daniel Dodd. It was surveyed June 5, 1785, and contained four hundred acres, with six percent allowance. The place is now owned by John Swart. Jacob Cook died in the spring of 1808, and left two sons, Stephen and Noah (to whom he left the real estate), and three daughters, Rhoda (Mrs. Carmichael), Hannah (Mrs. Morris), and Jemima. Ziba Cook was also an early resident, and kept tavern from 1797 many years, and was appointed justice of the peace April 2, 1802. There was also living near them a Joseph Cook, who died March 27, 1782, and left in his will 50 Franks to the Presbyterian Church of Ten-Mile.

John Hughes was of Irish ancestry and a native of New Jersey, and in his youth removed to Carlisle, where he entered the Continental army under Capt. Hendricks. The company in which he was placed was formed with eight others into a battalion of riflemen in July, 1775, and placed in command of Col. William Thompson. A New York paper of that date says that between the 28th of July and August 2nd, "The riflemen under command of Capts. Smith, Lowdon, Doudel, Chambers, Nagel, Miller, and Hendricks passed through New Windsor (a few miles north of West Point), in the New York government, on their way to Boston." They arrived in camp at Cambridge Aug. 13, 1775. In the month of September of that year Capt. Hendrick's company, with others, left for Canada under the command of Col. Arnold, and were in the attack upon Quebec. Mr. Hughes rose from the ranks to a captaincy. He remained with the army during the war, and was present at the battles of Princeton, Brandywine, Germantown, and Monmouth. After the war he removed to Washington County with Timothy Ryan. Together they purchased warrants for several large tracts of land on Fish Creek, now in Greene County, to which they received patents in August, 1785, and in 1786 he purchased Ryan's interest. John Hughes purchased a warrant for a tract of land on the 18th of October, 1784, of Albert Simonson on what is known as Hughes' branch of Ten-Mile Creek, adjoining James Tucker. This was surveyed to him as "Green Spring" on the 2nd of March, 1785. An account book of his, now in possession of his great-grandson, Workman Hughes, recorder of Washington County, extends from Oct. 13, 1784, to 1816. In 1784 and 1785 the names of Demas Lindley, Michael Tygart, Van Swearingen, Esq., Daniel Harris, John Gregg, James Lloyd, Dr. David Holmes, John Dodd, Patrick Allison, Capt. Samuel Brady, William Bryson, William Jarret, Maj. Cracraft, George Biggs, William Meetkirk, George Fox, David Long, John Brownlee, William Forbes, William Markland, James Tucker, Mr. Douglas, James Clemens, David Parkison, Alexander Beer, James Castor, Francis Biddle, Daniel Bigle, Henry McClelland, Daniel Leet, and William Leet are found entered. The most of the names here given were residents on or near the waters of Ten-Mile Creek. There is a space of nine years before the account is again taken up, and it is probable that the store was kept at Ten-Mile during that time.

In 1802, Mr. Hughes purchased a lot adjoining No. 18 on Main Street, in Washington, of Joseph Day, and in 1809 two lots on Maiden Street of Archibald Kerr. He was a hatter by trade, and opened a store in Washington. The accounts were kept in the book commencing in 1784. In later years he returned to Amwell township, where he died Sept. 5, 1818, in the sixty-eighth year of his age. He was buried with military honors by the companies of Capt. McCluney, of Washington, and Capt. Lacock's rifle rangers, of Amwell township.

Of his children, Mary Ann married Gabriel Blakeney, of Washington. She died, leaving no children. James married Mary, daughter of Gen. Abner Lacock, and settled in Amwell township. They left five children, of whom Sally (Mrs. Daniel Carter) resides at Monongahela City. Susan became the wife of Jesse Carter, and settled in Greene County. Margaret married Samuel Andrews, and afterwards John Horn. Samuel L. Hughes settled in Amwell township. He was elected a justice of the peace April 14, 1839, and held the position for thirty-two years. His death occurred Nov. 29, 1880, at the age of seventy years. Four sons reside in Washington, and one son, John, is in South America. Samuel, a son of John Hughes, married Mary, the daughter of Hugh Workman, and settled in Washington. He was a carpenter, and followed his trade. His descendants are living here still. John Hughes, Jr., settled in Washington, and died there. Thomas, also a son of John, emigrated to Kentucky. Barnabas married a daughter of _____ Vankirk, in his native town, and lived there till his death. The homestead of John Hughes in Amwell township is now owned by Dunning Hart.

William Curry was a native of Dauphin County, Pa., and was born in 1739. He learned the trade of gunsmith and cooper. He was a soldier in the Revolutionary war, after which he married, and in 1783 emigrated from Dauphin County with his wife to Washington County, and purchased two hundred and ninety-one acres of land of one Davis, who moved to Ryerson's Station, Greene County, where he was soon after killed and scalped by the Indians, together with all his family except one child, who escaped. The land at the time of purchase was not patented, and later Mr. Curry rode on horseback to Lancaster and secured the patent. On this tract he lived until his death, in 1820, aged eighty-one years. He left two sons, William and John, and two daughters, Margaret (Mrs. William Harbeson, of Lawrence County, Pa.) and Elizabeth (Mrs. John Carlisle, of Amwell township). John, the youngest son, settled on the homestead, where he lived until his death, Aug. 6, 1880, eighty-five years of age. He left four sons and one daughter. Thomas B., the eldest, lives in West Bethlehem township. Milton B. resides in La Salle County, Ill. Hugh W. and Francis M. Curry own and occupy the homestead, and have added largely to its area. Mary became the wife of Aaron Bane, also a descendant of one of the early settlers.

John, Henry, and _____ Vankirk, natives of New Jersey, all came to this county, and settled in Amwell township. John emigrated first, and purchased on the 10th day of December 1785, a tract of three hundred and fifty-nine acres of land of Abner Howell, which he patented Feb. 26, 1792. On this tract John lived till his death in 1798, and divided it among three of his sons, Jacob, Henry, and Joseph. He left four sons and three daughters, who were all born in New Jersey, Sarah, Jacob, and Henry by a first wife, Joseph, Elizabeth, John, and Catharine by a second wife. Sarah lived and died single; Jacob lived on the portion left by his father, and with his brother Henry, in 1808, purchased their brother Joseph's portion of the homestead. Jacob Vankirk married Elizabeth Lee, and their children were Enoch, Joseph, Leah, and Ann. Enoch Vankirk married Susan Caton, and to them were born nine children ---George, Sarah J., Matthias, Hugh, Mary A., Elisha, William, Jacob, and Sarah J. Caton. The first child named Sarah J. Caton died in infancy. The others all reside in Washington County except the youngest Sarah J. Caton, who lives in Ohio. Joseph, the other son of Jacob Vankirk, married Eliza Carter. They had six children, ---Joseph C., Hiram, Charles, William, Charlotte, and Ann Vankirk, all of whom live in Iowa. Leah Vankirk became Mrs. John McLain, and lives in Franklin township; Ann married Walter G. Scott.

Henry, brother of Jacob Vankirk, settled on the portion inherited from his father, and in 1808, with Jacob bought Joseph's portion. He lived and died here leaving four children, of whom John and Mary are dead. Charles is living in the township; Mary became the wife of Elbridge G. Cracroft, who, after her death, married her sister Nancy. The latter resides in Washington. Joseph, son of John, after the sale in 1808, moved to Morris township. His children are all dead. Elizabeth, a daughter, married Samuel Lacock and settled in Amwell. Their grandchildren are residents of the township. John purchased a farm about a mile from the homestead, and left it to his son Hamilton. It now belongs to the estate of Dr. F.J. LeMoyne. Catharine became the wife of _____ Beebout, and settled in Amwell. Henry Vankirk, brother of John, purchased two hundred and sixty-six acres of land of Sarah Gregg on the 29th October 1701, which was named "Red Thorn Bottom." On this tract he lived and died, leaving six children, --William, Gideon, Arthur, Henry, John, and Mary, all of whom were born in New Jersey. William remained there; Gideon married Priscilla Kater; Arthur married Elizabeth Parkison; their children were Lucretia (Mrs. David Birch), Asher, Emma (Mrs. Joel Woods), Edward, Ralph, William, and Sarah (Mrs. John Cooper).

Henry Vankirk, Jr. married Ruth Jolly, and settled on or near the homestead. Their children were Mary E. (Mrs. William Crispin), Dryden, Jane (Mrs. Oliver Cosart), Ruth (emigrated to Ohio, where she married), Susan (Mrs. James Cooper), Milton (who resides in Ohio), and Keturah (Mrs. Abraham Riggle).

Nathaniel McGiffin emigrated to this country from Scotland before he was twenty-one years of age, and enlisted in the Revolutionary army, and was present at the battle of Brandywine with Lafayette, and was with the army at Valley Forge. His discharge is now in the hands of his family. He removed to Washington County about 1789, and on the 23d of February 1790, purchased of Thomas McGiffin two hundred and thirty-eight acres of land which had been warranted to Andrew Smith on the 31st of March, 1788, and surveyed under the name of "Constancy." It was sold by Smith to Thomas McGiffin Dec. 29, 1789, and was patented to Nathaniel McGiffin Sept. 29, 1791. Later he purchased other tracts, but on the tract "Constancy" he lived until his death in 1821, aged sixty-two years. He left two children, Thomas and Rachel. Thomas was born Jan. 1, 1784, and came with his parents to this county. He entered Jefferson College at the same time with Cephas Dodd. After graduation he entered the law office of Parker Campbell at Washington, and was admitted to the bar in February, 1807. He removed to Vincennes, Indiana Territory, and practiced two years, and in 1809 returned to Washington, where he spent the remainder of his life. He was a contractor on the National road in 1816; member of a special session of Legislature in 1834 to fill a vacancy occasioned by the resignation of the Hon. Joseph Lawrence. He died in Washington Feb. 5, 1841, aged fifty-seven years. His son, Norton McGiffin, is a resident of Washington, and was in the service of the United States in the war with Mexico; sheriff of Washington County from 1858 to 1861; was lieutenant-colonel of the Twelfth Regiment in the war of the Rebellion, and served as a member of the Legislature in the session of 1881-82. Rachel, daughter of Nathaniel McGiffin, became the wife of Jacob Cook, of Ten-Mile, and settled in Amwell township.

Daniel Shuster was a native of Germany, who came to Amwell township at a very early date. In 1781 he was keeping tavern here in a house he had himself built. He settled in the northeast corner of the township, on the ridge where the old Redstone road passes. Here he purchased part of a tract of land which was warranted by Peter Hewitt, and surveyed to him April 11, 1786, as containing three hundred and seventy-three acres. Peter Hewitt lived and died on the remainder of the tract, and his descendants still own the homestead. His brother, Philip Hewitt, purchased an adjoining tract on the west, called "Wolf's Den," and having an area of three hundred and sixty-five acres, which was surveyed to him on the same date. The property of Philip Hewitt is now owned by George Hewitt, Henry and Reed Riggle, John Frazee, and B. F. Closser, and a school building called "Rees' School-house" is located on the southwest end of the tract. Daniel Shuster built a house upon his land when he first made his settlement in the township, and when the road was laid out, in 1781, he removed to the ridge, and built a large log house wherein he kept tavern for many years. Isaac Riggle and J. M. Morringer now own most of the Shuster property, and some of the logs in the old tavern have been used in the construction of Isaac Riggle's barn.

Job Wick and his wife emigrated from England to this country, and settled on Long Island, N.Y. Their son, Lemuel Wick, married Deborah Lupton, and in the year 1781 removed to the village of Amity in this township. They had a family of five children, --William, Henry, Phebe, Mary, and Anna Wick. The daughter, Anna, became the wife of Isaac Bane, Jr. William Wick, the oldest child of Lemuel and Deborah Wick, studied divinity with Rev. John McMillan. He married Elizabeth McFarland, a sister of William McFarland, Esq., and they removed from Amity to Youngstown, Ohio. They and the large family they reared are all buried at that place. Phebe, eldest daughter of Lemuel and Deborah Wick, became the wife of her cousin, William Wick. They also lived and died in Youngstown, Ohio, and had a number of sons and daughters. Mary Wick, second daughter of Lemuel Wick's family, married Nehemiah Scott; they also migrated to Youngstown, and died there, leaving a number of children. Henry Wick, second son of Lemuel Wick, married Hannah Baldwin, and in 1812 left Amity for Ohio, making his new home in Youngstown, as his brothers and sisters had done. The children of Henry and Hannah Wick were seven, --Caleb, Lemuel, Jr., Henry, Jr., Hugh B., Paul Elizabeth, and Matilda L. Wick. Hugh B. and Caleb Wick died and were buried at Youngstown, where they left large and wealthy families. Elizabeth married Robert Leslie, and died leaving one son. Lemuel Wick, Jr., and Henry Wick, Jr., both reside in Cleveland, Ohio, and Paul Wick's home is still in Youngstown. Matilda L. Wick became the wife of Thomas L. Bane. They are mentioned in the sketch of the Bane family.

David Evans, who was of Welsh origin, located in Amwell township, upon a tract of land called "Evans' Plat," situated on the middle fork of Ten-Mile Creek. This tract contained three hundred and ninety-nine acres, was surveyed to Mr. Evans, June 20, 1785, and was next to the lands of Robert Bennett, James Milliken, and Daniel McFarland. David Evans was a relative on the maternal side of the McFarlands, who were early and prominently identified with the history of Washington County. Of his descendants a number emigrated to the State of Ohio. Abel M. Evans, a lineal descendant, resides near Ten-Mile village, upon a portion of the old homestead; Joseph Evans, a son of Caleb Evans, and grandson of David Evans, died near Clarkstown. William Hughes owns a part of the Evans tract.

James Chambers came from County Down, Ireland, to this country, settling first near Williamsport, Pa. He remained there but a short time, however, and October, 1797, found him a resident of this township, located on Bane's Fork of Ten-Mile Creek. His family consisted of his wife, three sons, and three daughters. The daughter Mary, who became Mrs. Leslie Cannon, always lived in Amwell township, and died here in 1874, aged ninety-five years. Jane Chambers married James Jolly, and settled in Wheeling, Va., and Margaret, who married George Gourlay, removed to Cadiz, Ohio. Of the sons, James was a carpenter, who learned and followed his trade in Washington borough. Judge James C. Chambers, of Amwell Township, is his son. The son William was never married. He and Robert, the third son of James Chambers, settled upon the homestead, and in 1823 built a mill upon it, on the former site of a smaller mill which had fallen into ruins. The mill put up by the Chambers Brothers is still standing, the whole property now belonging to Robert Chambers' son. Robert Chambers, in 1824, purchased the first iron plow bought and used in the county, and James C. Chambers was one of the first who used it.

Joseph Miller's father came from Ireland and settled for a time in Mifflin County, Pa., where he married Hannah Beatty. Joseph Miller, their son, was born in Morris township, Greene Co., Pa., about the year 1790, and is now living at the age of ninety-one years. He was early apprenticed to the carpenter's trade, which he has followed most of his life. He relates that when he was but a child, Gabriel Blakney, while surveying, remained over Sunday at his father's house, and while there Mr. Blakney purchased Joseph's pet lamb, paying him one dollar, and his mother used the money to buy him a copy of "Pilgrim's Progress." In the war of 1812 Joseph Miller became a member of Capt. William Patterson's military company, being mustered in at Meadville, Pa. At that place William Piper was made colonel of the regiment, and they were all sent to Black Rock, on the Niagara River. Mr. Miller's company was in no active service, but remained until December, 1812, when the regular troops were ordered into winter-quarters, and the volunteers granted furloughs, on which they returned home. Mr. Miller's company, in which were his brother Benjamin Miller and Ichabod Clark, started to travel the distance to Amwell township on foot. They came through the southern part of Western New York, the snow in many places four feet deep, which in some localities had become frozen and crusted over until it would bear their weight. At other times they could only follow the Indian trail, a narrow path formed in the snow. They passed around the head of Chautauqua Lake, and one day marched twenty-eight miles without seeing a house. Ichabod Clark and Joseph Miller were obliged to carry Benjamin Miller's equipments in addition to their own, and to break the road as well, as he was sick. They reached home the day before Christmas in 1812, having been since December 11th or thirteen days, on the way.

March 4, 1813, Joseph Miller married Pamelia Harris, and has since that time resided in this township. His family was six sons and one daughter, the latter dying when seventeen years old. A son, Benjamin Miller, died in Indiana in 1881; the sons Nehemiah and William are residents of Ohio; the other three, John, James, and Stephen, live in Washington County. Mr. Miller, in gathering his descendants about him, brings together representatives of five generations, himself to his great-great-grandchildren inclusive.

James Tucker came from New Jersey to Amwell township about 1780. Beside his interests in this vicinity, he owned a one-eighth interest in the Old Spring Hill Iron Furnace, located in Spring Hill township, in Fayette County, where he spent a great portion of his time. In the year 1802 he sold this interest to Jesse Evans. James Tucker married Elizabeth Bane, and they had five children,--Isaac, Joseph, Thomas, James, and Nancy, the youngest, who married Henry Bebout and removed to Greene County, where she died. James Tucker, Jr., was a miller by trade and never married; Joseph Tucker emigrated to Ohio; and Isaac, who married Sarah Mason, lived and died on a portion of the old homestead. Thomas Tucker had the remainder of the father's farm, and his son Absalom now owns and occupies the whole of the original tract. Old Mrs. Tucker survived her husband several years.

Enoch Enochs emigrated from England to America, and settled on the north branch of the north fork of Ten-Mile Creek about 1770. The name of his property was "Enochs' Delight," located about one-half mile from lone Pine village, --the place that is sometimes called "Pin Hook." Enoch Enochs built a fort upon his land as a defense against Indian incursions. Henry Enochs settled in Clarksville, where he engaged in the iron trade, and other members of the family are scattered through Maryland, West Virginia, Indiana, and Ohio. Abner Enochs, of Amwell township, and Hiram Enochs, of Washington, in this county, are descendants of the pioneer Enochs.

Abraham Sutton, a primitive resident of Amwell township, was originally from New Jersey, and after settling here was a minister of the Bane Baptist Church. He had a son Andrew, a tanner by trade, who was a member of the Pennsylvania State Legislature in 1814-15. William Sutton, a son of Andrew, and grandson of Abraham Sutton, married Delilah Slaught, and died in 1881, near Pleasant Valley. A daughter of Andrew, and sister of William Sutton, became the wife of James Moore, whose father was an emigrant from England. Their son, W.S.Moore, was formerly editor of the Reporter, published at Washington, and died but a few years since.

Christopher Slusher was a citizen of German descent, who formerly lived in Loudon County, Va. He came to this township and settled near the old Decamp mill, on the north fork of Ten-Mile Creek, the site of the village of Pleasant Valley. Mr. Slusher lived upon the farm of his original settlement, and died there Feb. 2, 1819, at fifty-two years of age. His wife survived him several years. The farm is now owned by Frederick Ferrel and James Monegar. Michael Slusher, a son of Christopher, resides on the Squire McFarland place in this township, and David, another son, lives in Greene County, Pa.

Samuel McCullough, who emigrated from Ireland and settled in Amwell township, had three sons,--John, Samuel, and James. John died very young, Samuel went to Belmont County, Ohio, and James to Allen County, Ohio. The old homestead is now in the possession of George W. Moninger.

Thomas Lackey came from New Jersey and settled upon a large tract of land in this township. He had several children, but nothing is learned of any but Susan. She married Abraham Lattimer and lived near Canonsburg, where both died. The Lackey farm is now owned by William Workman, James W. Kountz, and William Bryson.

John and George Gardiner, brothers, were of German extraction, who came and settled in Amwell township. The farm of John Gardiner was in later years divided, and is now owned by David Stewart. George Gardiner's farm now belongs to John Curry's heirs, Hugh and Milton Curry. George Gardiner's son Daniel died in Lancaster, Pa. John, another son, married Rebecca Miller. He is dead, and she still survives. Jesse Gardiner, a third son of George, married Nancy McClure, and they removed to Columbiana County, Ohio. William Gardiner, the fourth son, is also dead, but his widow, formerly Ann Kitten, is still living. John Gardiner, the brother of George, had but one child, a daughter, who married John Ringer and removed to Coshocton, County, Ohio.

John Miller formerly lived on a tract of land on Brush Run, in this township, which is now owned by David Frazer. His wife was a daughter of Jacob Peck, and their children were John, David, Rachel, and Elizabeth. John married Nancy Reece. Both died, leaving several children. David Miller died in infancy.

James Carter, like many others of the early settlers of Amwell township, was an emigrant from New Jersey. He located and lived upon the property now owned by Dunning Hart, Esq. The sons of James Carter were William, John, and Henry. Henry died unmarried when twenty years of age. John's wife was Rebecca McFarland, the youngest daughter of William McFarland, Esq. William Carter married and had a family of two sons and four daughters. Of these James married Nancy Lytle; Isaac married Nancy Sowers; Mary became the wife of Edward Wier, Jr.; and Nancy became the wife of Caleb Evans.

John L. Harrison was born and reared in the State of New Jersey, and went from there to Licking County, Ohio. His son, John L. Harrison, Jr., came to Amwell township, married a daughter of Moses Cooper, one of the original settlers of the township, and here made his permanent home. They had four children, three of whom are still living, viz., William H. and Hannah C. Harrison, who live at Lone Pine village, in this township, and M.C. Harrison, who lives at Washington.

Moses Cooper came from New Jersey to Washington County and into the present township of Amwell many years ago, and located on Ten-Mile Creek. His wife, Sarah Griffith, was, like himself, of Welsh descent. Their family was but two sons, Moses and William, who went to Indiana and lived and died there, and a daughter, Priscilla, who married Peter Smith. Their son, James Smith, resided near Ten-Mile village, in this township. Peter Smith, another son, lives in Beallsville. The Smiths are all active and devoted members of the Baptist Church.

Jacob Peck was a German, and had married before he came to this county. He had three daughters, Ann, Rhoda, and Elizabeth. Ann Peck was the wife of James Bane, and her children were James, David, Columbus C., Sarah, and Rebecca Bane. Sarah married James Paul, and went to Richland County, Ohio. Rebecca married Right Vandike, and both died near the Peck homestead, which now belongs to Joshua Denam, Jr., a grandson of Jacob Peck. James B. Vandike, a son of Rebecca Bane, now lives in Greenfield, in Washington County.

Thomas Kitten came from Virginia to the present township of Amwell. The tract of land he took up was called "Fox Hill." His three sons were George, Dorsey, and Daniel. George moved to Ohio, where he died at the advanced age of ninety-five years. Daniel died a bachelor, and Dorsey, who married, lived and died upon the Kitten homestead.

Town of Amity.—The earliest information concerning this town is found in the following advertisement in the Western Telegraphe and Washington Advertiser, published at Washington:


"The subscribers have laid out a number of lots for a Town in the township of Amwell, near Mr. Moor's meeting-house, on the main road leading from Washington to Waynesburgh, nearly central between the two. The situation is pleasant, near several grist-and saw-mills, in a thriving settlement, etc. Persons inclining to purchase are desired to meet on the premises on the 25th day of July next, at ten o'clock, when the lots are to be offered for sale to the highest bidder; terms will be easy, and a good title given by the subscribers,

"Daniel Dodd,
"June 20, 1797.
" Ziba Cook"

The land on which the town was laid out was originally taken up by Nehemiah Scott, a part of which was purchased by Daniel Dodd, and later a part by Ezekiel Clark.

Lots were sold at the time mentioned to Daniel Thompson, Jacob Appleman, James Milleken. A deed is recorded to Daniel Thompson, bearing date June 19, 1798, which recites that the lot is No. 13, adjoining lots of Appleman and Milleken and land of Henry Wick. The consideration was $11.50. Henry Wick had a distillery on the land mentioned adjoining the town, and which he later (in 1799) purchased of Daniel Dodd. This was on a tract purchased of John Carmichael, named "Cook's Delight." On the 14th of September, 1803, Daniel Dodd sold to John Cooke three lots, Nos. 18, 29, 22. In 1807, Cooke was licensed to keep a tavern. On the 5th of November, 1810, Thomas Brice advertised that he had opened a store in Amity, and kept linen, lining, hemp, and bags, beeswax, feathers, whiskey, and rags. On the 4th of July, 1811; the citizens of the town met at the house of Leslie Carsons "for the purpose of celebrating the birthday of American independence." Maj. Thomas Vanemen was chosen president, Thomas Brice vice-president. The Declaration of Independence was read by Abel McFarland. The festivities were accompanied with martial music and a discharge of firearms by a detachment of Capt. William Gordon's rifle company.

The present town of Amity contains twenty-seven dwellings, Presbyterian and Methodist Protestant Churches, school-house, two stores, drug-store, cabinet-shop, two shoe-shops, two blacksmith-shops, wagon-shop, barber-shop, tailor-shop, harness- and saddle-shop, post-office, two milliners and dressmakers, and three physicians.

A lodge of Odd-Fellows was organized at this place in 1859, their charter bearing date May 19th of that year, having the name of "Ten-Mile Lodge, No. 552." The following are the names of the first officers and charter members: Apollos Loar, Noble Grand; Henry Swart, Vice-Grand; Samuel Walton, Secretary; Wilson McCollum, Assistant Secretary; Henry Miller, Treasurer; James A. Bebout, Nelson McCollum, John McAfee, James Manin, Benjamin Yoders, and Samuel Martin. The lodge has a present membership of nineteen.

The Methodist Protestant Church of Amity was organized in 1832 by the Monongahela Circuit. William Iams and Joel Woods, of Amity, invited the Revs. John Wilson and Israel Thorp, itinerant ministers of the church, to preach at Amity in the fall of 1831. Early in January, 1832, a class was organized at the house of William Iams, which consisted of the following persons: Joel Wood, William and Susanna Iams, N. B. Clutter, and Mary Thompson. Soon after the organization the society purchased the old log church use by the Presbyterians for fifty dollars, they being about to erect a new one. A lot was donated by William Iams, upon which they erected a house of the logs of the old church. This they used as a place of worship until 1851, when they erected on the same site, and at a cost of $500, a neat frame house, in which they worshiped till 1867, when finding they demanded a larger house, they sold the old church to Dr. S. S. Strouse, and upon the same site they erected the frame building, thirty-two by thirty-eight feet in size, in which they still continue to worship.

The ministers in charge of the church since its organization have been as follows: John Lucas and Israel Thorp, 1831-32; John Lucas and W. B. Dunley, 1832-33; H. Sanford and George Hughes, 1833-34; J. Fordyce and Z. Regan, 1834-35; D. Sherman and _____Atwood, 1836-37; W. L. Dunlap and W. Ross, 1837-38; _____Messer and _____, 1838-39; _____ Shearer and James Hopwood, 1840-41; Nelson Burgess and _____, 1841-42; S. W. Laishley and N. Watson, 1842-43; T. J. Addis and T. Wilson, 1843-44; William Hazlett and _____, 1844-45; William Ellis and _____, 1846. Herron, 1846-48; Henry Palmer and William M. Betts, 1848-49; H. Palmer and S. J. Dorsey, 1849-50; Joel Wood, 1850-51; J. H. Hull, 1851-52; H. T. Taylor, 1852-53; William Beard, 1853-54; J. Scott (supply), 1856; William M. Betts, 1856-57; W. H. Phipps, 1858-59; J. D. Herr, 1859-60; D. Ims, 1860-61; W. H. Phipps, 1861-62; H. Palmer, 1862-83; A. Patterson, 1863-65; C. P. Jordan, 1865-66; J. D. Herr, 1866-68; William Wallace, 1868-69; F. A. Day, 1869-70; W. H. Griffith, 1870-71; William Wallace, 1871-73; J. M. Mason, 1873-74; J. F. Dyer, 1874-77; G. C. Connancy, 1877-81. The society has a present membership of one hundred and thirty-three. A Sunday school is also in connection with the society.

Lower Ten-Mile Presbyterian Church1 -- The earliest history of this congregation will be found in that of the Presbyterian Church of Upper Ten-Mile, the annals of the two being inseparably blended during the time that both were under charge of the first pastor, the Rev. Thaddeus Dodd, which relation continued until his death, May 20,1793. In October of that year this church, then styled the United Congregations of Upper and Lower Ten-Mile, presented a call to Mr. Thomas Marques accepting. On the 10th of April, 1794, the united congregations of Upper and Lower Ten-Mile presented a call for the pastoral labors of Mr. Thomas Moore, a licentiate of the Bristol Association of Massachusetts, who had been taken under the care of the Presbytery of Redstone. Mr. Moore declared his acceptance of this call August 19th, and was ordained and installed in September or October, 1794. Dr. Wines says, "Mr. Moore was a man of vigorous intellect, of high culture, of ardent temperament, of undoubted piety, of active zeal, and altogether of great excellence and worth. His labors resulted in numerous conversions. It is probable that the whole number of admissions to the church could not have fallen much, if any, below two hundred during his ministry of a little more than nine years."

[1The history of this church is taken from a sermon delivered by the pastor, Rev. John S. Atkinson, Aug. 28, 1878, at a celebration of the settlement of the Rev. Thaddeus Dodd as pastor of Presbyterian Churches of Upper and Lower Ten-Mile, with addition from 1879 to the present time (1882).]

Dec. 13, 1803, the Presbytery of Ohio met in Ten-Mile, and was opened with a sermon by Mr. Cephas Dodd, on Col. iii. 3. Mr. Dodd, in his diary, says the services were held in the "Lower House." On the next day, December 14th, Mr. Moore was released from his pastoral charge, and Mr. Dodd was ordained. In the ordination services Rev. John Anderson, D. D., preached the sermon, on 2 Timothy ii. 3, and Rev. James Hughes presided and gave the charge.

After Mr. Moore's release, the commissioner from this church asked Presbytery for supplies, which were appointed at each stated meeting of Presbytery until June 25, 1805, when a call for the ministerial labors of Rev. Cephas Dodd was presented from the united congregations of Upper and Lower Ten-Mile. This call was accepted by Mr. Dodd, and Rev. Messrs. Brice and Gwin were appointed a committee to install him on Monday after the first Sabbath of September, 1805.

Mr. Dodd was the son of Rev. Thaddeus Dodd, and was born on Ten-Mile, Washington Co., Oct. 12, 1779. He received his classical education at Canonsburg Academy, and studied theology with Rev. John McMillian, D.D. He was licensed to preach the gospel by the Presbytery of Ohio, Oct. 29, 1801. "From the time of his licensure until his settlement as a pastor he labored as a home missionary in a very large field, embracing Jefferson, New Providence, Meritstown, and other points." From his memorandum book it appears that he was traveling and preaching almost daily during the years 1802-3.

Mr. Dodd's pastoral relation with this church was dissolved April 15, 1817. "Thenceforward," says Dr. Wines, "the two congregations became two distinct bodies, with separate sessions, and each independent of the other." After his release from this pastoral charge, Mr. Dodd made a short visit in the West. On his return the congregation of Lower Ten-Mile engaged him as a stated supply from the 10th of July 1817. The congregation promised to give him four hundred dollars a year, and to permit him to pursue the practice of medicine in connection with the work of the gospel ministry.

Shortly after his settlement as a pastor, Mr. Dodd was induced to engage in the study of medicine, from the want of proper medical attendance for his family. At that time he had no intention of practicing as a regular physician, but merely to fit himself to practice in his own family. But at the earnest solicitations of his immediate neighbors he consented to attend upon their families. Becoming known as an excellent and skillful physician, his practice increased until it became very extensive and laborious. He may also have found it necessary to pursue the practice of medicine to supply the deficiency in his salary. But he did not engage in it from a hope of gain; for it is a well-known fact that for much of his labors as a physician he never received any pecuniary reward.

When Mr. Dodd became the stated supply of Lower Ten-Mile congregation the number of its communicants was sixty. The increase was gradual until 1826, when the attendance upon the means of grace was increased, and during the year twenty-five were added to the church on profession of their faith. This work continued five or six years, during which time nearly two hundred were brought into the church on profession of their faith. In 1831 the number of communicants was two hundred and eleven. In the minutes of session, under date of November, 1833, are found the names of forty-six members who had withdrawn from the church of Lower Ten-Mile, and had united with the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. A few of these had been prominent in the church. One, Mr. Ephraim Cooper, had been for six years a ruling elder. But there were added to the church the same year seven on profession of their faith, two of whom, Messrs. Thomas McFarland and John Buckingham, shortly afterwards became ruling elders.

On the 23rd of September, 1838, Mr. Dodd gave notice to the congregation that he had determined to cease practicing medicine, and to devote himself wholly to the work of the gospel ministry. This announcement was received with favor by the congregation. But two things interfered with Mr. Dodd's accomplishing his purpose: (1st) There continued to be a deficiency in the salary, which must be supplemented in some way; and (2nd) so great was the confidence of the people in Mr. Dodd's skill as a physician that while he was able to pay a visit many would not send for any other.

On the 16th of April, 1844, the congregation of Lower Ten-Mile was favored with a meeting of Washington Presbytery, which was followed by a revival. Thirteen were brought into the church, one of whom, Mr. Charles P. French, afterwards entered the gospel ministry. Mr. French labored for some time in West Virginia, where, it is thought, "he brought on consumption by preaching in the open air during the dreadful times of the war, after his church was burned." He struggled manfully against his disease, but it was incurable, and on the 8th of February, 1870, he died near Ottawa, Ill.

In the spring of 1851, Rev. James W. McKennan, D.D., a professor in Washington College, received and accepted a call to become an associate stated supply of this congregation. Dr. McKennan was born in Washington, Pa., Sept. 2, 1804. After graduating in Washington College in 1822 he pursued the study of law, which profession he practiced for a short time in Millersburg, Ohio. But his mind having undergone a radical change on the subject of religion, he was led to alter the purpose of life, and to dedicate himself to the work of the gospel ministry. He studied theology under the care of Rev. John Anderson, D.D., was licensed in 1828, and ordained in 1829. He continued to share the labors of stated supply with Mr. Dodd, each occupying the pulpit one-half the time, a little more than three years. During this time the church made encouraging progress. In the winter of 1851-52 twenty-eight were received into the church on examination.

After the resignation of Dr. McKennan in the summer of 1854 this church was dependent upon Mr. Dodd and an occasional supply obtained by the session from abroad nearly one year and six months. In the spring of 1855 a call was carried up to Presbytery for the ministerial labors of Rev. Samuel H. Jeffrey, promising him five hundred dollars in quarterly payments for the whole of his time. This call was returned to the congregation, not having been placed in Mr. Jeffrey's hands, owing to his engagements with the congregations of Waynesburg and Unity, and for other reasons.

On the 26th of April, 1856, Rev. William P. Harvison was installed pastor of this church by a committee of Washington Presbytery, consisting of Drs. E. C. Wines and J. I. Brownson. Dr. Brownson preached the sermon and presided, and Dr. Wines delivered the charge to the pastor and people.

Mr. Harvison's ministry continued until April 5, 1861, when the pastoral relation was dissolved on account of inadequate support and ill health, which rendered him unable to perform the necessary amount of pastoral labor. During his entire life he suffered from feeble health and repeated attacks of sickness. He died at Shirland, Pa., Aug. 15, 1870. He was a good student and a faithful preacher of the gospel and pastor of the flock. In this church Mr. Harvison's ministry was eminently successful. Thirty-nine were brought into the church on profession during the first year, eleven in the second year, twenty-eight in the third year, and ten in the fourth. With many of the congregation Mr. Harvison's name is still held in grateful remembrance. It was during Mr. Harvison's ministry that Mr. Dodd died at his residence near Amity, Pa., Jan. 16, 1858. Mr. Harvison, in his "Commemorative Notice," says of Mr. Dodd, "He was most loved by those who knew him best. His labors among the people of his charge were greatly blessed of God, not only in promoting the regular increase of the church, but several precious seasons of the special outpouring of the Holy Spirit were enjoyed under his long and faithful ministry."

Rev. James Black, D.D., was Mr. Harvison's successor. He became the stated supply of this congregation in the spring of 1861, and continued his labors as such until Oct. 1, 1863. He also supplied this church during the spring and summer of 1864.

During the winter of 1863-64, Rev. William B. Faris supplied this congregation. He was an eminently conscientious, laborious, and useful man. During his brief ministry here six were received into the church on examination. Mr. Faris died at Neoga, Ill., Nov. 5, 1871, aged thirty-seven years. This congregation were very desirous that Dr. Black continue his labors as stated supply, but failing in their efforts to retain him longer than September, 1864, the congregation invited Rev. William I. Brugh, D.D., another professor in Washington College, to become their stated supply for one year, promising him five hundred dollars. Dr. Brugh accepted this invitation, and began his labors on Oct. 1, 1864. By a vote of the congregation at their annual meeting in December his salary was increased to six hundred dollars.

Rev. J. W. Hamilton was the next stated supply of this congregation. He began to preach at Lower Ten-Mile in October, 1865, and closed his labors there in May, 1870. At the March communion in the latter year forty were received into the church. Connected with the revival in this church in the spring of 1870 is the name of Rev. Jonathan Cross, who assisted Mr. Hamilton a few days. Mr. Cross visited this church again in the winter of 1871-72, and his name is still cherished by many in this congregation.

In September, 1870, Rev. J. C. Hench commenced preaching to this people. He afterwards received and accepted a call to become the pastor of this church. He was installed on June 1, 1871. In the installation services, Rev. J. S. Marques presided and charged the pastor, and Rev. Henry Woods preached the sermon and gave the charge to the people. Mr. Hench's ministry closed in June, 1873. After his release this church was vacant nearly one year, but during this time its pulpit was frequently filled by members of Presbytery.

In March, 1874, the session of this church sent a letter to the Rev. John S. Atkinson, who was then ministering to the churches of Wayne and Chester, near Wooster, Ohio, inviting him to their pulpit one week from the following Sabbath. He was unable to accept this invitation, but he afterwards came to Amity, and preached his first sermon in the old frame church on Sabbath, Mar 24, 1874, from Rom.xv.13. In compliance with the request of the congregation he continued his labors, and was installed pastor by a committee of Presbytery on October 4th. In the installation services, Rev. S. M. Glenn preached the sermon and gave the charge to the pastor, and Rev. E. P. Lewis presided and delivered the charge to the people. The Rev. John S. Atkinson resigned Sept. 8, 1880. Since then the church has been served by the Rev. Alexander C. Wilson, acting as a supply.

Since 1817 five hundred and forty-four have been received into this church on profession of their faith in Christ. Three hundred and sixty-nine of these were brought in during seasons of revival. The present (1882) membership of the church is one hundred and fifty.

In the sessional records of Lower Ten-Mile the following names appear of men who served as ruling elders, viz.: Demas Lindley, Jacob Cook, Joseph Coe, and Daniel Axtell, who were chosen at the organization of the church in 1781; William McFarland and Stephen Cook, ordained in 1784; Stephen Saunders, Joseph Lindley, John Carmichael, John Smiley, and Abel McFarland, ordained in 1795 or 1796; Israel Dille, Jonas Condit, Ziba Casterline, and John Headley, ordained in 1805. At the time of the separation the session of Lower Ten-Mile consisted of three members, viz.: William McFarland, Esq., John Smiley, and Jonas Condit. This number was reduced by the death of Mr. McFarland on June 2, 1823. He was the son of Col. Daniel McFarland, an officer in the Revolutionary war, and was born in New Jersey, Dec. 19, 1756. He and his father united with the church of Ten-Mile on examination during intermission on that ever-memorable third Sabbath of May, 1783, on which was the first administration of the Lord's Supper in the region of Ten-Mile. It was a season of great solemnity and of special manifestation of the divine presence. Mr. Samuel Andrew was added to the session in 1824: and Messrs. Ephraim Cooper and Nathan Axtell on Nov. 5, 1826. In September, 1831, the session was called to part with its senior member, Mr. John Smiley, who removed to the State of Ohio. He had been a faithful and highly esteemed ruling elder in this church for nearly forty years.

In 1832, Mr. Samuel Andrew removed to Ohio, where he served as ruling elder in the Presbyterian Church of Bucyrus until his death in 1849. About the time of Mr. Andrew's removal, Mr. Cooper united with the Cumberland Presbyterians. This reduced the session again to two members, viz., Messrs. Jonas Condit and Nathan Axtell. In the autumn of 1837 the congregation agreed to go into an election of six, and as a result Messrs. William Patterson, James McFarland, Luther Axtell, John Buckingham, James Braden, and Thomas McFarland were chosen. They were all ordained and installed on Nov. 6, 1837, except Mr. Thomas McFarland, who retained the call until the next summer. His ordination occurred on July 22, 1838.

Mr. Jonas Condit died on July 18, 1850, in the eighty-second year of his age and forty-fifth year of his service as ruling elder. None was more faithful or highly esteemed. His second wife was a daughter of Rev. Thaddeus Dodd. In 1851, Mr. John McFarland was added to the session. He had been ordained in the Presbyterian Church of Morgantown, W. Va., on Nov. 19, 1848. Mr. Nathan Axtell died on May 23, 1852, in the seventy-ninth year of his age and twenty-sixth year of his service as ruling elder. Mr. William Patterson died Oct. 13, 1856, in the eighty-second year of his age and nineteenth year of his rule in the house of God. After his death, in the composition of the session, one-half are McFarlands—James, and his brother Thomas and son John. In 1858 this composition is changed by the congregation selecting three additional members viz., Messrs. Thomas J. Patterson, Robert Boyd, and Daniel Condit, who were solemnly set apart on Sabbath, Sept. 12, 1858. Mr. Patterson removed to Illinois in 1860, where he also served as a ruling elder. He died near Streator, Ill., March 23, 1873.

Mr. James McFarland died on Feb. 26, 1863, in the eighty-third year of his age, and twenty-eighth year of his office. He was the son of Mr. William McFarland, a former member of this session. He was born in Washington County.

In 1868, Mr. Robert Boyd, having removed to Washington, transferred his connection to the Second Presbyterian Church of Washington, Pa., in which he afterwards served as a ruling elder. Mr. Boyd died Dec. 2, 1875. Mr. Luther Axtell died on Feb. 8, 1868, in the eighty-fifth year of his age, and thirty-first year of his service as a ruling elder. Mr. Axtell was born in the State of New Jersey, and came with his father, when six years old, to Washington County.

On Dec. 9, 1868, Messrs. Thaddeus Dodd, M.D., and Elias McCollum were ordained and installed. In 1870, Mr. John McFarland transferred his church membership to Upper Ten-Mile, where he served as ruling elder until his death, Feb. 18., 1878, in the sixty-ninth year of his age.

Mr. Thomas McFarland died on March , 1871, in the seventy-fourth year of his age, and thirty-third year of his service as ruling elder. He bequeathed one thousand dollars to the Lower Ten-Mile Church. Mr. McFarland was soon followed to his reward by his associate in office, Mr. James Braden, who died May 1, 1871, in the eighty-fifth year of his age, and thirty-fourth year of his office. On Dec. 30, 1872, Messrs. A. P. Vandyke, Samuel Braden, and J. N. Horn were chosen. Mr. Braden removed to Jefferson, Pa., in the spring of 1877, where he is now serving as a ruling elder.

Thaddeus Dodd, M.D., died on Aug. 25, 1877, in the sixty-eighth year of his age, and ninth year of his eldership. Dr. Dodd was a good physician, a man of few words, but of much thought. He was the son of Rev. Cephas Dodd.

It thus appears that thirty-three persons have sustained the office of ruling elder in this church since its organization. Twenty-one of these have served since the separation of Upper and Lower Ten-Mile congregations. The remarkable longevity of all who have died in the office here is worthy of note. The youngest was Dr. Dodd, who was in his sixty-eighth year.

The first house of worship was erected in the summer of 1785, on the premises of Mr. Cook. It was built of hewn logs. It was repaired considerably in 1809. In 1825 the congregation of Lower Ten-Mile built of brick a house of worship on the farm of Mr. Jonas Condit, about five miles northwest from Amity. It was long known as the "brick meeting-house." After Nov. 10, 1825, by request of the congregation, Mr. Dodd preached one-half of his time in this house until 1844, when a resolution was adopted by the congregation that two-thirds of his time be occupied in Amity and one-third in this house. In 1852, Dr. Kennan was requested that one-half of his services be in this house. In 1871 this house was sold for two hundred and thirteen dollars and seventy cents. In 1831 the congregation of Lower Ten-Mile began the erection of their second house of worship in Amity, some ten or fifteen feet north of the old house. It was built of brick, fifty-five feet long by fifty feet wide, and cost about one thousand dollars. It was not completed until the spring of 1832. On the evening of Feb. 4, 1842, one gable of this house was blown in. A meeting of the congregation was immediately called, and arrangements made for erecting their third house of worship in Amity. This was a frame filled in with brick, and was fifty-five feet long by forty-five feet wide. It cost about thirteen hundred dollars. During the erection of this house the congregation of Lower Ten-Mile worshipped in the Methodist Protestant Church of Amity.

The present house of worship was erected in 1875, a few feet northwest of the last house, at a cost of about five thousand three hundred dollars. It is a brick edifice, fifty-seven feet long by forty-five wide with a vestibule in addition. On Dec. 30, 1875, this house was dedicated. The sermon was preached by Rev. John Gillespie, D.D., from 2 Chronicles vi. 41, after which the dedicatory prayer was offered by the pastor, Rev. John S. Atkinson. Rev. J. F. Dyer, of the Methodist Church, and Rev. S.M. Glenn, pastor of Upper Ten-Mile congregation, were present, and participated in the exercises.

The trustees serving in this congregation in 1817, when Upper and Lower Ten-Mile became each independent of the other, were Messrs. John Carter, Thomas Ringland, and William Patterson. Since then sixty-one persons in all have served the church in this responsible position.

Mr. James Ringland served in this office thirteen years; Messrs. Daniel McCollum, Sr. and Caleb McCollum, each twelve years; Mr. William Patterson, Sr., eleven years; Dr. S. S. Strouse, ten years; Messrs. Joseph Evans, James Millikin, Silas Clark, and Andrew P. Vandyke, each seven years; Mr. James Braden, six years; Messrs. Zachariah Sharp, Sr., John Millikin, Robert Boyd, and Isaac Horn, each five years. Those serving a less number of years are: Messrs. John Carter, Thomas Ringland, Ephraim Cooper, Stephen Corwin, William Lindsley, Samuel Andrews, William S. Millikin, Daniel Cooper, Isaac Clark, Martin Clark, John Mullen, Ezekiel Clark, Asa Luellen, Jacob A. Saunders, Nehemiah Baldwin, John Buckingham, Thomas McFarland, Luther Axtell, Reason Luellen, Samuel Johnston, John McFarland, Daniel Cary, Adam Weir, Sr., John Saunders, Lemuel Luellen, George French, Daniel Condit, Jacob Braden, James B. Montgomery, Samuel Condit, T. J. Patterson, Jesse Jordan, Samuel Braden, William Luellen, James F. Dodd, Milton Clutter, B. B. Bradbury, Nelson McCollum, L.F. Pershing, William Hazlet, John Johnston, Workman Hughes, Zachariah Sharp, Jr., Henry W. Horn, David B. Baker, Edward Depue, and Hiram Tharp.

Postmasters. – Following is a list of postmasters at Amity village, viz.: Ziba Cook, Z. Sharpe, Jesse Jordan, J. N. Ringland, J. B. McDonald, James Hughes, Mrs. E. J. Bebout, James A. Jackson, M. Sharpe, D. E. Baker, James M. Hughes.

Physicians. – The first to practice medicine in the village was the Rev. Cephas Dodd, who practiced all his life and died Jan. 16, 1858. The next physician was Dr. S. T. Strouse. He studied medicine with Dr. J. Letherman, of Canonsburg, and in 1832 practiced in Pittsburgh, and May 10, 1833, came to Amity; married Jane, daughter of the Rev. Cephas Dodd, and settled there in practice, which he continued till 1879, when he retired from active duty. Dr. Thaddeus Dodd, a son of the Rev. Cephas Dodd, studied with his father, and later attended the medical college at Cincinnati, where he graduated, after which he commenced practice at Amity, and continued till his death Aug. 25, 1877, aged sixty-eight years. He left a son, William S. Dodd, who studied with his father, graduated at Cincinnati Medical College, and succeeded to his father's practice. Dr. W. W. Sharpe, a regular physician, practiced in different places, came to Amity about 1855, opened an office, and is still in active practice. Dr. B. F. Lindley has also been a practitioner in the town.

Clarktown, or Ten-Mile Village. – The tract upon which this town is situated was called "The Mill-Site." The town was named in honor of Abner Clark. The first lots sold are now occupied by the brick building in which the post office is located. In 1834, Freeman Hathaway erected a grist-mill. In 1838 a post-office was established at this place and named Ten-Mile. Freeman Hathaway was appointed postmaster. About 1840, Dr. George Reed, a physician, located here and commenced practice. The village has at present fourteen dwellings, two stores, two blacksmith-shops, cabinet-maker, grist- and saw-mill, -- owned by Huffman & Swart, --harness-maker, drug-store and post-office, and two physicians, --Dr. J. W. Moore and Dr. L. W. Braden. A Masonic lodge was organized at this place several years ago, but was discontinued in 1876.

A grist- and saw-mill and store is located up the creek, owned by Walton Swart. Two miles below the village on the creek is a grist- and saw-mill and store owned by Martin & Sons. The post-office is kept at this place. The postmasters of Ten-Mile have been J. F. Hathaway, John Cary, Philip Axtell, Benjamin Bradbury, A. B. Scott, Joseph A. Little, Hiram Tharp, John T. Reynolds, and T. C. Gessford, who is the present postmaster.

The following-named physicians have practiced at Ten-Mile, viz.: Drs. George Reed, John Cary, _____ Wilson, George Lewis, Thomas Morton, J. C. Milliken, Joseph Moore, L. W. Braden.

Lone Pine. – This little village, located on the north fork of Ten-Mile Creek, is variously known as Lone Pine, Pleasant Valley, and "Pin Hook." The tract of land on which it is situated was obtained by Thomas Hill on a Virginia certificate granted Jan. 20, 1780, and surveyed as "Bottom Lick," containing four hundred acres. It passed through several hands, and while in possession of David Frazee the town was laid out. John Harrison erected the first house, which is still standing, and now the property of Jacob Maxwell. Joseph Ross erected the next one, now the property of James D. Huston. In his dwelling he opened the first store in the village. James D. Huston was the first postmaster, and the only one. The name of Lone Pine was given to the post-office. A distillery was erected near the village by A. J. Caton about 1865, and carried on by him till his death. It was then sold (Sept. 15, 1869) to Samuel L. Hughes and Peter Garrett. The former sold his interest to Garrett, by whom it was run for a time and was discontinued. The building is now used as a dwelling house.

In the fall of 1878 the friends of education in the village formed a stock company for the purpose of establishing an academy to be called the "Lone Pine Academy." School was opened soon after the organization in Huston's Hall. During the next year a building was erected, and the upper room was and is used for this purpose, and the lower room for the public school of the village. The officers of the academy are James D. Huston, president; James A.Monniger, secretary; John A. Frazee, Robert C. Vandegrift, and Frederick Rossel, directors. J. H. Henderson was chosen principal at the opening of the academy, and is still in charge.

The village at present contains forty dwellings, the school building, Disciple Church, steam grist- and saw-mill, two stores, three blacksmith- and wagon-shops, an Odd-Fellows' Lodge, and one physician.

The only society in the village is Lone Pine Lodge, No. 693, I.O.O.F. It was chartered in March, 1870, with the following officers and charter members: James D. Huston, Noble Grand; Isaac H. Horn, Vice-Grand; Samuel Walton, Secretary; John Sibbet, Treasurer; William W. Paul, John Closser, William Briggs, James M. Sibbet, Samuel Sharp, George Huffman, Henry Hanrond, Isaac Husk, Thomas Reed, and A. J.Riggle. The lodge has at present twelve members.

Pleasant Valley Christian Church.1 ---When the house of worship of the Ridge Baptist Church was built, John Frederick Shrontz, Sr., a faithful disciple of Christ, proposed to give fifty dollars to the building-fund, on condition that he should have the privilege of using the house occasionally for preaching when the Baptists were not using it. This condition was agreed to in a church meeting, and the fifty dollars was paid. In the exercise of the right thus granted to him, John T. Smith, a Disciple preacher of good ability and of genuine piety, who lived at that time on Pigeon Creek, was employed to preach once a month. The gospel proclaimed by him was "like unto leaven, which a woman took and hid in three measures of meal." "The word of God, which effectually works in them that believe," worked in the hearts of his hearers, and prepared them for the advent of two preachers from the State of Ohio, who came in November, 1840. They were the saintly Marcus Bosworth and the youthful and zealous Lyman P. Streator. They preached in the Ridge Baptist Church and after holding several meetings in Washington and adjacent counties, Marcus Bosworth returned to Ohio, and left the young L. P. Streator to labor in the neighborhood into which he had been thus introduced.

[1 By Rev. W. L. Hayden]

By agreement, he was to preach in the Ridge meeting-house once a month for a year for fifty dollars. In the following spring and summer crowds attended the ministrations of the young evangelist, and under his labors several persons "confessed the good confession before many witnesses." Some of the good Baptist brethren united with these immersed believers, who were known by the humble name of Disciples of Christ in their weekly commemoration of the death of their common Saviour.

This communion of saints regardless of party tenets aroused the jealous fears of some of the stricter Baptists, who resolved to turn the Disciples out of the house. Accordingly, in October, 1841, when the youthful preacher came to fill his appointment, he found the congregation assembled outside of the house, the door was locked, and a guard was standing between the waiting assembly and the empty sanctuary.

The little company of Disciples quietly gave up their rights under the agreement that was made when the house was built, and formally planted the Christian Church at Pleasant Valley by subscribing to a church covenant at a meeting held for the purpose on the 16th day of October, 1841, at the house of John Frederick Shrontz, Sr. The names subscribed are Simeon Hathaway, J. Frederick Shrontz, Sr., Sarah Shrontz, Jacob Egy, David Egy, Mary Egy, Albert Gordon, Anna Young, Christiana Cooper, Sarah Hatfield.

On the next day David Smith and Elizabeth Smith were received by the unanimous consent of the congregation.

In order to remove an erroneous impression it is well here to remark that the expression "the Scriptures of divine truth" means, with the Disciples, the "old family Bible," or, more specifically, relating to the Christian dispensation, the New Testament of our Lord Jesus Christ. While they accept the aid of the best scholarship in ascertaining the mind of Christ, and rejoice in the electric light of the highest criticism, and have always been the friends of pure versions, they have used the commonly received version in their public ministrations.

At first the meetings on Lord's Day were held at the private residences of J. Frederick Shrontz, Sr., Zebulon Ferrel, and Jacob Egy. Very soon, however, the young church began to prepare for housekeeping, and in the fall of 1843 a comfortable frame meeting-house was built on land then owned by David Slusher.

On March 30, 1844, Mr. Slusher made a deed of "eighty-nine and eight-tenths perches, strict measure," of land to Col. David Frazee and Zebulon Ferrel, trustees of the Disciples' meeting-house thereon erected, "to have and to hold the same for the use and benefit of said Disciples' Church, excepting the third week in each month, for the proper use of other persons who may have contributed to the building of said meeting-house.

The earliest record of organization is on Jan. 27, 1844, when there was a meeting for the purpose of choosing officers in the church. J. F. Shrontz, Sr., and Zebulon Ferrel were chosen deacons, and set apart to that office by the imposition of hands. Henry Bennett was chosen as a teacher, both in the congregation and wherever he may have an opportunity or be called to preach the word, and was set apart in like manner, L. P. Streator officiating on the occasion.

The earliest record of elders is Dec. 15, 1850, when Col. David Frazee and G. B. Shidler were appointed to that office.

On April 8, 1857, David Frazee, Sr., and David Slusher gave a deed "to the Christian Church, composed of the Disciples of Christ meeting at Pleasant Valley, in Amwell township, Washington County, for and in consideration of one dollar, of three acres, strict measure," of land, to be held sacred to the construction of a cemetery and the erection of a meeting-house, and for no other purpose.

The trustees of the church, viz.: David Frazee, Sr., David Slusher, and Samuel L. Hughes, on Feb. 22, 1859, filed a petition for incorporation agreeably to the provisions of the act of Assembly of the 13th of October, 1840, and after due notice thereof was given the final decree of court was issued May 7, 1859, incorporating the members of this church into one body politic by the name and title of the "Disciples' Church of Pleasant Valley."

For more than twenty-five years, "upon the first day of the week," "the disciples came together to break bread" in their first house of worship in this valley. But the growing congregations became too large for the small house, and in pursuance of duly authorized call, a meeting of church-members and citizens was held on March 7, 1868, when it was unanimously voted to build a new meeting-house on the lot opposite the cemetery, the present site, which was then owned by David Frazee, Sr. He immediately pledged himself, his heirs, executors, etc., to make a good title to said lot as soon as the house was finished. Accordingly the deed was given to the Disciples' Church of Pleasant Valley on Oct. 13, A.D. 1869, for and in consideration of the sum of ten dollars.

A committee of five of the subscribers to the building fund was chosen by ballot to determine the size, form, and style of the building, and was constituted a building committee, with instructions to begin the erection of the house when five thousand dollars were subscribed. David Slusher, L. P. Streator, A. J. Closser, J. M. Ross, and Samuel L. Hughes were said committee. By order of this meeting the old house was disposed of at public sale.

Christianity develops and elevates the highest faculties of human nature, and consecrates them to the service of God, that the man of God may be "thoroughly furnished unto all good works," hence schools are the legitimate fruit of the gospel. The members of the Pleasant Valley Christian Church wished to provide proper educational advantages in their own vicinity for their children and their neighbors' children. The church led the way, and the citizens of the place heartily united in the enterprise.

The Court of Common Pleas of Washington County, Pa., on Nov. 26, 1853, granted the application for a charter and issued decree and declared David Frazee, Sr., Philo Paul, Samuel L. Hughes, David Bane, David Slusher, David McElhinny, David McDonough, Lyman P. Streator, Edward Riggs, and such other persons as may be associated with them a body corporate and politic by the name and title of "Pleasant Valley Academy."

A deed was given by Col. David Frazee, dated May 20, 1854, to the directors of the academy, for and in consideration of one hundred and thirteen dollars and seventy-five cents, of "one acre and twenty-one perches, strict measure," of land for the only and proper use of said company.

A suitable building was erected, and the grounds were improved at an aggregate cost of two thousand and fifty-one dollars and seventy-five cents, --no small sum to be raised at that time in a rural district. The first trustees elected under the charter, June 27, 1855, were the following: For three years, Col. David Frazee, Philo Paul, and Samuel L. Hughes; for two years, David Frazee, Sr., Thomas J. Rees, and David Bane; for one year, L. P. Streator, Joseph Moore, and Asher Vankirk. L. P. Streator was elected principal of the academy at the beginning, and for five years he had charge of the institution. By his untiring efforts as a teacher and a member of the board of trustees he raised the academy to a high degree of efficiency, and made it self-supporting. It became an intellectual power and a centre of a large circle of influence. The lamented Philip Galley, William S. Spear, and J. L. Darsie, under whose successive administrations the school was well sustained, succeeded him in the principalship. But owing to some unfavorable changes in its surroundings, the academy was closed in January, 1871, and the building was sold.

The spirit of education survived the academy, and in 1875 the school was in some measure revived by J. H. Hendron, who won his way to public favor by his efficient labors, and continues to hold the confidence of the community as a successful educator and a godly man.

The fact has already been stated that L. P. Streator was preaching for this church at its formation. He was not only first in order of time, but he is the first in the aggregate length of time and in amount of preaching done. He was highly esteemed by the church and community. After him there have been regularly employed by the church J. B. Piatt, Hamilton VanKirk, Robert Milligan, Henry Langly, Henry Bennett, R. Baily Chaplin, James Darsie, Philip Galley, Finley Oakes, S. B. Teagarden, J. L. Darsie, F. M. Hawkins, A. F. Reynolds, William S. Spear, S. F. Fowler, R. Gardner, Campbell Jobes, P. M. Woods, J. H. Hendron, and J. W. Satterfield. Twenty preachers in forty years, an average time of two years for each engagement, is painfully suggestive of instability on the part of the church or the preachers, or of unscriptural notions with regard to the regular support of an approved ministry.

Beside these the following named have labored here in meetings of days, some of whom have been called twice or thrice for such special work, viz.: William F. Pool, J. H. Jones, Richard Williams, John Lindsey, F. B. Lobingier, J. D. Benedict, D. G. Mitchell, George Lucy, John Whitaker, T. C. McKeever, A. Wilcox, J. B. Crane, Benjamin Franklin, O. G. Hertzog, T. A. Crenshaw, M. L. Streator, D. L. Kincaid, J. F. Rowe, and H. B. Cox. On occasions of general meetings this church has been favored with the presence and the preaching of A. Campbell, Wesley Lanphear, W. K. Pendleton, and perhaps others less noted.

It is worthy of special mention that, under the auspices of this church, M. L. Streator did good service for evangelical truth in an able defense of the Bible against materialism. In a debate with a Mr. Niles, a representative of materialistic philosophy, he set forth the spiritual teaching of the word of God with great clearness and force, and won such a signal victory that the cause of his opponent has never rallied from the defeat.

While this church gratefully cherishes the fragrant memory of the many pure and able men of God who have spoken to them the word of the Lord, historical truth demands the humiliating confession that the cause of Christ here, as in some other places in the county, has suffered much from the evil example of some preachers who have proven unworthy of their holy calling, some of whom thrust themselves upon an unsuspecting brotherhood without authority to preach or any just claim to public confidence. Nevertheless this church has steadily held on its course, and received into its fellowship up to this date six hundred and fifty-two members, but, to quote from the records of the congregation, "many persons whose names are recorded have departed, some to that country whence no traveler returns, some to distant parts of the land, and some to the weak and beggarly elements of the world." Hence the roll has been repeatedly revised, and the present membership is about two hundred and sixty.

The responsible office of elder has been held by Col. David Frazee, G. B. Shidler, J. F. Shrontz, Sr., Alfred Grim, Jacob Stone, Samuel Loyd, J. F. Ferrel, David Frazee, Sr., P. M. Woods, and F. T. Shrontz, of whom the last three named constitute the present eldership. In addition to the primary deacons already mentioned, David Slusher, Alfred Grim, Jacob Egy, O. F. Lyon, O. Moniger, Theo. Vankirk, John Lynn, and J. H. Hendron have served as deacons, the last four of whom constitute the present deaconate.

From this church at least seven preachers have gone forth into the evangelical field, viz.: Thomas Sutton (deceased), R. Gardner, M. L. and J. M. Streator, P. M. Woods, H. B. Cox, and Herbert Horn, while the sainted Philip Galley and L. S. Brown were in part the product of the Pleasant Valley Academy. At first the Sunday-school work met with some opposition, which was exhibited by sending anonymous letters to David Frazee, Sr., the first superintendent. But this church has since manifested a lively interest in the Sunday-school cause, and brought out an unusual number of workers in that department of church activity. Thirteen members of this congregation have been called at different times to the superintendency. Their names are David Frazee, Sr., T. H. Vankirk, S. T. Dodd, Workman Hughes, Jr., Hamilton Riggle, P. M. Woods, John Shipe, O. F. Lyon, D. H. Lewis, W. W. Paul, Herbert Horn, D. M. Frazee, and O. Moniger. The last named is at present assisted by eight teachers, who have under their religious instruction, more or less of the year, near one hundred and sixty pupils.

The church has recently enjoyed a powerful awakening in religious interest, during which over sixty persons were received into fellowship.

It has a firm hold on the people in that locality, and the practical recognition of the apostolic principles of Christian oneness, --"endeavoring to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace,"—and the provision for itself of pastoral oversight and instruction commensurate with its means and the necessities of the present age, will insure for it a high degree of prosperity and increasing usefulness for many years to come.

Bane Town.—This hamlet contains seven dwellings, a store, post-office, wagon-shop, two blacksmith-shops, and a station of the Washington and Waynesburg Railroad. It was originally the property of the Banes, and the old Bane fulling-mill and grist-mill were located here. The last vestiges of their foundations were removed two years ago. A fulling-mill and horse grist-mill were erected under the same roof about 1790, by Nathan Bane, on the little creek called Bane's Fork of Ten-Mile Creek. On the 22d of September, 1796, Gordon Douglass advertised in the Western Telegraphe, published at Washington, "That he means to carry on the fulling business in all its various branches at Nathan Bane's fulling-mill, on the Middle Fork of Ten-Mile Creek." It was in operation for many years. The property on which the mill was located is now owned by Nathaniel Bane and Cyrus Maloy.

North Ten-Mile Baptist Church.—The families of the Banes and others settled on the waters of Ten-Mile Creek in 1768 were Baptists from Virginia and descendants of such. The families of Sutton and others settled a little later in what is now Fayette County. Several of the Suttons were Baptist ministers, and a church called Great Bethel was organized by them at what is now Uniontown in 1770. Two years later (1772) a church was constituted in the Bane settlement, in Amwell township, at the house of Enoch Enochs, where Charles Rossel now lives. The minutes of the early years are still in existence, and from them are taken the quotations given below. The record of the first meeting is illegible and cannot be made out. It proceeds:

"December 1st, 1773. The church met on business the first time at Enoch Enochs', and after Solemn Prayer Proceeded. Made choice of Samuel Parkhurst, Clerk.

"Feb'y 4th, 1774. The church met on business at Brother David Enochs', and after Solemn Prayer Proceeded: 1st, chose Brother Issachar Huntington Deacon; 2d, chose Alexander Keith to supply the place of a Clerk to Raise the Psalm Tune; 3d, chose Brother James Sutton, and Received him as our Minister; 4th, appointed the Friday before the first Sabbath in the next March to be a meeting of church business, and the Saturday following to be a day of Fasting, the Sabbath to be a Communion with us.

"Before our next appointed Communion the Church being scattered on Account of the Indians, so that we could not attend in any Church order until the next fall, Brother Sutton moved over the mountains, and Returned to us the next October.

"November 31st, 1774. The Church met at Joseph Bane's to Consult the welfare of Zion, and after Solemn Prayer conclude to appoint the last Lord's day in next April to attend the Communion of the Supper at Enoch Enoch's, The Saturday before preparatory."

The record shows that on the 13th of October 1775, Robert Bennet was received by letter, also John Buckingham on the 16th of February 1776, and Cheniah Covalt and Cimfer A. Bennet on the 15th of February, 1777. The next entry found is as follows:

"At our meeting June 16, 1781, gave our Ministering Brother, John Corbley, an invitation to attend with us statedly in the administration of the word and the ordinances of the Gospel.

"About the first of May, 1783, our ministering Brother, David Sutton made us a visit from the Jerseys, and the church gave him an invitation to come and settle amongst us which he accepted, and the next fall he moved out here with his family. [Mr. Sutton remained as pastor till his death in 1812. At that time he resided in West Bethlehem.]

"March 18, 1786. At our meeting of Business agreed that the meeting-house be finished by a levi on each Ratable Estate, Brother John Buckingham and David Enoch to have the oversight thereof."

The first meeting-house was built in 1786. It was of logs, and was used until 1794. On the 10th of May in that year Samuel Parkhurst, a trustee of the society, purchased twenty-one acres and twenty perches of land for ℒ2 5s. of Daniel McFarland. It was situated on the waters of Ten-Mile, on the tract of land called in the survey "Big Rocks." On this land the society built a hewed log house, which was occupied many years. The society about 1840 built the present brick meeting-house, and on the 1st of July, 1842, Philip Axtell, John Bane, Lewis Ketchum, acting deacons, purchased one acre and one hundred and thirty-one perches of land, in consideration of twelve and a half cents, of Jacob Bane. The deed bears date July 1, 1842, and says "on which now stands the new brick meeting-house." The land on which it stands was warranted to Nathan Bane in 1786, and is part of a tract of three hundred and four acres known as "Bane's Fancy."

The pastors from the first, connected with the church as far as can be ascertained, have been as follows: James Sutton, Feb. 4, 1774-80; John Corbly, June 16, 1781-83; David Sutton, May 1, 1783, till his death in 1812. From this time till 1836, the records are lost, and nothing positive can be ascertained. In that year the Rev. A. B. Bowman became the pastor, and served until 1839, when he resigned, and Levi Griffith was called, accepted, and ministered to them till 1842, when F. Downey succeeded him, and served four years. His successors were William Whitehead, S. Kendall, _____ Lenning, T. C. Gunford, Winfield Scott, B. P. Ferguson, J. Boyd, W. B. Skinner, C. W. Tilton, and J. Miller, who is the present pastor.

This church was the first one of any denomination organized in Washington County. It became in 1776 one of the constituent members of the Redstone Association. The minutes of that body for the early years were never published, and as they were found in this section it is thought proper in the history of this first church to give quotations from them. Several of the churches here mentioned are not now in existence, and little knowledge of them has been obtained:

"Book A. –Minutes of the Annual Association of the Baptist Churches west of the Laurel Hill, called the Redstone Association.

"Met in Annual Association at Goshen, west of the Laurel Hill, Oct. 7, 1776, the following messengers from the several churches, viz.:

"1. Great Bethel. 1—Isaac Sutton, James McCoy, and Elijah Barclay. 2. Goshen. –John Corbly, John Gerrard, and Jacob VanMetre. 3. Ten-Mile. –James Sutton, David Enoch, and Robert Bennett. 4. Turkey Foot. –Isaac Morris. 5. Pike Run. –William Wood and David Ruble. 6. Yough. –Samuel Luallen and John McFarland.

[1 1. Great Bethel was at Uniontown, Fayette Co. 2. Goshen, in Greene County. 3. Ten-Mile, at Bane's, in Amwell township, Washington Co. 4. Turkey Foot, at Confluence, Somerset Co. 5. Pike Run, in Vaneville, Somerset township, Washington Co. 6. Yough, organized in 1773, afterwards became the Peters Creek Church, now at Library, Allegheny County.]

"1st The introductory sermon was preached by Mr. James Sutton from these words, "The Angel of the Church," Rev. ii. 1, wherein the duty of messenger was clearly exhibited. 2d. Proceeded to business. Brother John Corbly was chosen moderator, and William Wood clerk, 3d. … 4th. A request from Cross Creek for the constitution of a church granted, and Brothers John Corbly and William Wood appointed to officiate in constituting the said church. Query. In what state did Adam stand in Paradise, whether he partook of the Diving nature in his creation or not.

"Answer. Adam was created in an upright State, but that he partook of the divine nature as the essence of God, we cannot suppose only that he received so much of the divine nature as was sufficient to actuate his righteous soul thereby."

"Met in Annual Association at Great Bethel, Monongalia Co., Va. [now in Fayette County, Pa.], Oct. 13, 1777, the following members of Goshen; Turkey Foot, Richard Hall, Henry Abrams; Pike Run, William Wood, James Rogers, Morris Brundy; Forks of Cheat, Samuel Luallen; Yough; Ten-Mile; Simpson Creek, William Davis, Dana Edwards; Georges Creek, Joseph Barnet, Peter Jones; Cross Creek, William Taylor."

"At a meeting of the Association on the 2d, 3d, and 4th of October, 1780 (place not given), the number of members in the different churches were given as follows: Great Bethel, 49; Ten-Mile, 9; Yough, 34; Goshen, 30; Forks of Cheat, 19; Simpson's Creek, 19; Pigeon Creek, 45.

"A request from separate church on Shirtee to join Association. Resolved, That William Woods, John Corbly, William Taylor, Isaac Light, David Phillips, and John Buckingham ------ Williams be appointed to attend at Benjamin Rennoes on Shirtee [now Allegheny County] the Wednesday after the fourth Sabbath in October, to examine into the state and order of that church, and if found satisfactory to receive them into fellowship with us."

"Association of 1781 met on Saturday before the first Sabbath at Great Bethel. Nine churches represented. Patterson and Cross Creek received into fellowship."

"On the 2d of October, 1784, the Association met at Muddy Creek. The following churches were represented. The names of the churches, messengers, and number of members are here given: Great Bethel, Rev. Isaac Sutton, James Sutton, Isaac Morris, Thomas McGloughlin, 120 members; Ten-Mile, Rev. David Sutton, Robert Bennet, Samuel Parker, Isaac Bane, 31 members; Peters Creek, Rev. William Taylor, 45 members; Goshen, Rev. John Corbley, Levi _____, James Meredick, Daniel Clark, 40 members; Forks of Cheat, John McFarland and others, 40 members; Pigeon Creek, Rev. William Wood, Z. Williams, David Ruble, William Buckingham, 35 members; Simpson Creek, Rev. Isaac Edwards, John Stohe, 32 members; Georges Hill, Moses Airs, William Carter, 95 members.

"Association met on the 27th October, 1788. Twelve churches were represented. Rev. John Corbly was moderator, and Benjamin Jones clerk."

September 24, 25, and 26, 1796, met at Uniontown, fifteen churches represented. Enon (Fallowfield township) represented by Henry Speers and John Raton.

In 1806 the Association met at Cross Creek, Brooke Co., Va. Twenty-nine churches were represented. Sept. 22, 23, 1820, at Plum Run; Aug. 31, 1822, at Washington; Sept. 5,6,7, 1823, at Pittsburgh; Sept. 1,2,3, 1826, at Redstone.

At the last session it was resolved that "the doctrines held by the Washington Church and their ministers are found to be heterodox … and they are hereby excluded from our fellowship." This was about the time when the church became divided by dissensions, resulting from the teachings of Thomas and Alexander Campbell.

Pleasant Hill (Cumberland Presbyterian) Congregation. —The following, taken from the minutes of this church, gives the causes that brought it into existence:

"Shortly after the camp-meeting held in Morris township, Washington Co., Pa., in the fall of 1831, by A. M. Bryan, J. Morgan, Alexander Chapman, R. Burrow, and R. Donnell, missionaries of the General Assembly of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. In the early part of October of the same year another was held by A. M. Bryan, R. Burrow, and R. Donnell, in Amwell township of the county and State above, in the grove on the farm of Abel Millikin.

"The number professing reconciliation to God at this meeting was estimated at one hundred. After this, from time to time, by M. Bird and A. M. Bryan, meetings were held in the neighborhood, principally at the house of A. Millikin. In the early part of 1832 a second camp-meeting was held in the grove before mentioned by William Harris, Alexander Chapman, S. M. Aston, M. Bird, and A. M. Bryan. At this meeting there were so many cases of awakening and conversions, though not so many as at the first. From this camp-meeting the different ministers who occasionally preached in the neighborhood received, baptized, and enrolled the names of persons up to Jan. 22, 1833, who were then regularly organized into a congregation called "Pleasant Hill."

At the organization the following persons were chosen ruling elders: Joseph Evans, Abner Clark, and Abel Milliken, and were ordained by the Rev. John Morgan. The church is at present under the care of the Rev. Luther Axtell. Worship is held in a neat brick edifice not far distant from Clarkstown.

Schools in Amwell Township. –The first classical school west of the Allegheny Mountains was established within the bounds of the Ten-Mile congregation (Presbyterian), in the spring of 1782, by Rev. Thaddeus Dodd. The following extract from a letter of the Rev. Dr. Jacob Lindley (who was one of the pupils), dated June 2, 1854, gives some account of Mr. Dodd's school, and the writer's connection with it:

"My parents when I was eight years of age imbibed the notion that I was pious and sent me to the school of the prophets, which was kept in a large log house, erected for the purpose, some fifty steps from Mr. Dodd's dwelling. It was sufficiently large for three or four beds, with room for tables, etc. I was sent there to live with Mr. Dodd and to study Latin in A.D. 1782, and remained there till 1784. The Latin students then with Mr. Dodd were James Hughes, John Brice, Robert Marshall, Francis Dunleavy, John Hanna, Daniel Lindley, David Smith (father of Rev. Joseph Smith, D.D.), Robert Marshall, Jr., and Jacob Lindley. Mathematical students, Daniel McFarland, Joseph Eddy, Thomas Stokely, and Thomas Gormly. All boarded with Mr. Dodd."

In 1789, Mr. Dodd became principal of an academy in Washington. About three years later William Greenlee and Archibald Stansbury were teachers in this township. In 1800, Isaac Cook, Matthias Luce, and James Foster were also teachers. About 1810 two school-houses are remembered, one near Nathaniel McGiffin's residence, and the other near Capt. John Hughes'. There were others, but where located has not been ascertained. Among the teachers at that time were John Wells, James Smith, Nathan Becket, Joseph Evans, Hugh Stockdale, John Mountz, and John Birch. But little information has been gained of the schools until 1835. At that time Amwell accepted the public school law, and divided the township into districts under the direction of B. Hughes, J. Chamberlain, and David Evans, who were the first school directors under the law. The number of persons in the township at that time liable to taxation for school purposes was three hundred and seventy-seven, and three hundred and ten dollars and sixty-four cents was raised in the year 1835. In the next year the township did not comply with the terms of the law as regards State appropriation, and only raised one hundred dollars and eighty-one cents. In 1837 the proportion of the township was five hundred and twenty dollars and four cents; to this was added twenty-four dollars and sixty-six cents, making five hundred and forty-four dollars and seventy cents. The following is a list of the school directors from 1835 to the present time:

1835.—B. Hughes, J. Chamberlain, D. Evans
1836.—H. Beabout, J. Vankirk, J. Swart
1837.—David Frazier, D. J. Evans.
1838.—James Hughes, J. Horn.
1839.—IsaacTucker, F. Shrontz.
1840.—John Buckingham, Adam Marsh.
1843.—William McEvans, Daniel McCollum.
1844.—Hamilton Vankirk, Joseph Miller.
1845.—William Hallam, Samuel Hughes.
1846.—John Horn, David Frazer.
1847.—A. J. Closser, Zebulon Ferrell.
1848.—Joseph Miller, Jr., William Luallen.
1849.—John Moningan, David Blusher.
1850.—Thomas J. Patterson, David McElheny.
1851.—Oliver Lacock, Nicholas Horn.
1852.—A.M. Evans, Robert Chamberlain.
1853.—John Curry, James Hughes.
1854.—Enoch Baker, John Horn.
1855.—Robert Chamberlain, Isaac Horn, James C. Chambers, Ira Kelso.
1856.—Robert Chamberlain, Stephen Patterson.
1857.—Benjamin F. Reese, George Swart.
1858.—Samuel Baker, George W. Moningan, Joshua Denman.
1859.—A. J. Clossen, Joseph Evans.
1860.—B. F. Rees, W. W.Sharp.
1861.—Adam Horn, James McDonald.
1862.—A. J. Closser, James McDonald.
1863.—Robert Horn, William W. Hill.
1864.—Milton B. Curry, Benjamin F. Rees.
1865.—Robert Chamberlain, Daniel McCollum.
1866.—G. W. Moningan, Ira Kelsey.
1867.—Tunis Miller, Daniel Condit, John A. Fruzzee.
1868.—David Baker, Peter Camp.
1869.—William Watson, John Lewis.
1869, October.—Isaac Iams, C. Hackney.
1870.—Adam Marsh, Onias Moningan.
1872.—J. C. Vankirk, A. J. Swart.
1873.—H. Beabout, Clark Hackney.
1874.—James Smith, Adam Horn.
1875.—J. N. Horn, Joseph Gray.
1876.—Isaac Riggle, John Martin.
1877.—John Weaver, William Swart.
1878.—D. H. Lewis, William Hallam, Irwin Moningan.
1879.—H. C. McCollum, John Hughes, J. C. Vankirk.
1880.—J.C. Vankirk, H. W. Horn, J. H. Meek.
1881.—W. Hallam, Jr., James H. Meek.



Enoch Baker was of Quaker parentage, and was born in Maryland, Nov. 28, 1788. When he was about six months old his father, Nathan Baker, who was a farmer, moved to Chester County, Pa., where he remained until the beginning of the present century (from 1800 to 1803), when he removed to Washington County, Pa., and settled in East Bethlehem township. During Nathan's residence in Chester County his first wife died, leaving eight children --Lydia, Mary, Aaron, Nehemiah, David, Joseph, Enoch, and Nathan; and he was married to his second wife, a widow, Mrs. Jordan, by whom he had four children, William, Israel, Hannah, and Mahlon. Soon after settling in Washington County Nathan returned to Chester County with a drove of horses, and while there died, and was buried beside his first wife. Enoch Baker learned the blacksmith trade with Nathan Pyle, of East Bethlehem township. After serving his apprenticeship he worked as a journeyman four years with Christopher Slusher, and then purchased a farm on the road from Lone Pine to Ten-Mile village, where he spent the balance of his life. He was a hard-working, thrifty, conscientious man, who left a stainless character and reputation. He was prudent and discreet, a gentleman, and never permitted himself to say harsh things to those with whom he conversed. He was a man to whom his neighbors turned and asked advice when surrounded by difficulties. He was for many years a member of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, and delighted to study and practice the precepts of Christianity.

He was married March 3, 1814, to Elizabeth Jennings, of Amwell township, Washington Co., Pa. He died Aug. 29, 1861. His wife died Aug. 5, 1862. The children of Enoch and Elizabeth (Jennings) Baker were Nathan, Lemuel, Elmey, Permelia, David, Lucinda, and Daniel.

Nathan Baker was born Oct. 24, 1816. He is a farmer, and resides in Amwell township. He married Maria Horn, and has four sons, --John W., David E., Robert C. and Colin R.

Lemuel Baker was born Sept. 25, 1818. He is a farmer of Amwell township. He was married Jan. 4, 1844, to Sarah Jane Ross. She died Dec. 24, 1849, leaving one child, Permelia Baker, who married Franklin T. Shrontz, a farmer of Amwell township, and has six children--Sarah Frances, Cordelia B., Elmey Mary, Lemuel Baker, Permelia T., and John Frederick.

Lemuel was married to his second wife, Cordelia K. Lindley, May 11, 1852. She died May 7, 1873, and he married his third wife, Mrs. Anne Eliza McCollister (nee Gass), Jan. 4, 1875. She died May 28, 1881. Lemuel married his fourth wife, Elizabeth H. Black, of Jefferson, Greene Co., Pa., July 26, 1882.

Elmey Baker was born Aug. 26, 1820. She married Abel M. Wilson, a farmer of Amwell township, Nov. 17, 1842. Their children are Nathan B., Elizabeth (married to A. B.Samson), Lucinda (married to John Reynolds, deceased), Ruth A. (who died July 15, 1880), Enoch B., Victorine, and William M.

Permelia Baker was born Nov. 9, 1822, and died April 6, 1838.

David Baker was born Jan. 19, 1826, and died April 11, 1838.

Lucinda Baker was born Oct. 16 1828. She married Robert Stockdale, May 2, 1850. They reside in Henry County, Iowa, and have two children—Enoch B., and James.

Daniel Baker was born Sept. 4, 1832. He married Minerva A. Walton, Feb. 12, 1857, and resides upon the old homestead. Their living children are Flora (married to A. J. Meek), Ida May (married to Abram L. Paul), Viola, Lydia, James, and Bird.

The brothers and sisters of Enoch Baker, who are all dead, married as follows: Lydia, married Benjamin Townsend. They removed to Columbiana County, Ohio, where they both died.

Mary married Joshua Linton. They lived and died in East Bethlehem township, Washington County, Pa.

Aaron married Ruth Jordan. They lived upon the farm where his father settled.

Nehemiah married Eliza Pyle.

David married Margaret Robbins. They lived and died in East Bethlehem township.

Joseph married Mary Corwin, of Amwell township, wherein they died.

Nathan married Abba Ruble. Their children were Levi, Lavina, David, Mary Ann, Albert, Malinda, and Hiram.


Andrew J. Swart, a courteous and companionable gentleman of Amwell township, is the sixth son, and eighth in the order of birth, of a family of nine children—six sons and three daughters—of Philip and Asenah (Walton) Swart. He was born in the township wherein he resides, Dec. 16, 1836. He was reared on a farm, and was educated in the common schools and Waynesburg College, Greene County, Pa. Under the call for three months' men he enlisted in April, 1861, and was a member of Company E, Twelfth Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers. He returned home in July, and October 31st of the same year he was married to Mary J., daughter of Jacob and Mary Greenlee, of Greene County, Pa. In August, 1862, he enlisted in a company raised at Amity by Capt. Silas Parker. This company was known in the service as Company D, One Hundred and Fortieth Pennsylvania Volunteers, commanded by Col. R. P. Roberts, who was killed at Gettysburg. Mr. Swart was wounded July 2, 1863, at the battle of Gettysburg. He remained in the hospital upon the field for about two weeks, and was then removed to the hospital at Annapolis, Md., where he remained until October of the same year, when he was given a furlough and sent home. After the expiration of his furlough he reported at Philadelphia, and was placed in a hospital there, where he remained until March, 1864, when he was transferred to a Pittsburgh hospital, in which he remained until September, 1864, when he received his discharge. Since that date he has given a superintending care to his farm, being by his wounds unfitted for severe manual labor.

Mr. Swart is a member of the Methodist Protestant Church, a member of the William F. Templeton G.A.R. Post, of Washington, Pa., and also of Ten-Mile Lodge, I.O.O.F. His gallant service for his country, his modest, genial manner and moral worth, have secured for him the respect of those who know him.

Mr. Swart has four living children, --Florella, married to Samuel Luellen, a farmer of Amwell township; Viola, Minnie, and Anna Mary.

Three of Andrew J. Swart's brothers, John, Henry C., and Amos, were soldiers in the late war, all members of Company D, 140th Pennsylvania Volunteers. Amos was killed at Spottsylvania in 1864; Henry C. was severely wounded in the same battle.

Mr. Andrew J. Swart's father, Philip Swart, was the oldest son and second child of a family of ten, the children of Jacob and Sarah (Evans) Swart. He was born in 1797, and died in 1876. His wife, Asenah (Walton) Swart, died in 1870. The immigrant ancestor of this now numerous family was Philip Swart, a native of Germany. His children were Jacob, above mentioned, and Susan, who married John H. Philips, of Greene Co., Pa.

*Boyd Crumrine, "History of Washington County, Pennsylvania with Biographical Sketches of Many of Its Pioneers and Prominent Men" (Philadelphia: L. H. Leverts & Co., 1882).

Transcribed by Nola Elliott in June 1998. Published in July 1998 on the Washington County, PA USGenWeb pages at

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Copyright © 1998 Jean Suplick Matuson. All rights reserved.