Cross Creek Twp. (pp. 721-742)

History of Washington County, Pennsylvania*

The territory now embraced in the townships of Cross Creek, Jefferson, and part of Mount Pleasant was included in the original township of Hopewell for more than eight years from the erection of the last-named township. The first movement towards the formation of Cross Creek township from a part of Hopewell was the presentation of a petition to the court on the 31st of March, 1789, setting forth

"That your petitioners, as well as many others who may have business to do before a single justice of the peace, labour under a very considerable inconveniency, being situate such a great distance from the present justice, who lives very near to the extremity of the township; and as the township is very extensive and will admit of a division, and both be compact, which of course will be, moreover, less trouble and expense to the inhabitants at large;"

and for these reasons praying that the township be divided and a new one erected according to certain suggested boundaries. The petition was laid over to the next term, when "the court request the following men to point out a proper division of said township and make a report to next court, viz.: Col. John Marshall, James Gillespie, James Marshall, Esq.; William Cuttraugh, and John Buchanan." These viewers performed the duty assigned them, and reported in the matter to the court as follows:

"Agreeably to your request we have the honor to report that the proper division of the township of Hopewell in our opinion should be as followeth, viz.: Beginning at a certain spring of the head waters of Cross Creek, which rises near about ten perches from the township of Strabane, between the dwelling houses of James Anderson and Timothy Spinner; thence down the south branch thereof to Wells' Mills; thence across the creek [by Cross Creek] to the State Line."

This report was approved by the court, and the new township ordered erected, "to be called Cross Creek township." The court also recommended "the northern division of the divided township as a district for a justice of the peace." The action of the court was certified to the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania, and was confirmed by that body on the 10th of December, 1789, thus creating the township of Cross Creek, and making it a separate justice's district. The first justice of the peace for the new district was Henry Graham, appointed Aug. 24, 1790. He resided at Cross Creek village.

The township of Cross Creek retained its original territory and limits until May, 1806, when a portion of it was taken to form the township of Mount Pleasant; and in 1853 the township of Jefferson was formed from the western part of Cross Creek, reducing the township to its present limits. It is bounded on the west and northwest by Jefferson, on the north and northeast by Smith, on the east by Mount Pleasant, and on the south by Hopewell and Independence townships, from which it is separated by Cross Creek, which is its only stream of any importance. The north, middle, and south branches of this creek flow through the township in a southerly direction to their junction with the main stream.

Early Settlements.- Alexander Wells was one of the earliest, if not the first, of the pioneer settlers of Cross Creek township, as he came here prior to the year 1772, and located a very large area of land. He came from Baltimore, where he had purchased soldiers' rights from men residing in that city; and upon these he located tracts amounting to two thousand acres of land, which are now within the boundaries of Cross Creek, Jefferson, and Independence townships. Fifteen hundred acres of the land was situated on the middle branch of Cross Creek, and the remaining five hundred was located near Cross Creek village, on the head-waters of the north branch of Cross Creek. The patent for this land was granted to Alexander Wells in 1780; and on April 23, 1796, five hundred acres of the land, situated on the middle branch of Cross Creek, was sold by him to Thomas Bay. That property is now owned by Arnold Lawton, Joseph Brownlee, James Stevenson, and John F. Sharp. The five-hundred-acre tract situated near Cross Creek village was conveyed by deed to Rev. Thomas Marques, Aug. 27, 1794. Whether sold by Alexander Wells to Marques is not definitely known; but tradition has it, and it has become an established belief, that it had previously been sold by Wells to William Parks, a brother-in-law of Thomas Marques.

Subsequent to the first location of land made by Alexander Wells, he at different times took out warrants for other tracts, some of which were in his own name and others in the name of some member of his family. For the tract "Stillton" he received a Virginia certificate, Dec. 21, 1780, and also one for "Mayfield" upon the same date. "Stillton" received its name from a still which was in operation upon the tract, at the head of the creek.

A Virginia certificate, dated March 23, 1780, granted Alexander Wells the tracts "Wellwood" and "The Cliffs," but the dates upon which he warranted "The Grove" and "Rocky Ridge" are not given. "Jerusalem" was warranted May 9, 1785, in the name of James Wells, son of Alexander. The tract contained two hundred acres, and was adjoining the lands of Alexander Wells, Thomas Wells, and Mrs. Mary Patterson. "Wellington" (two hundred and twenty-two acres) was warranted to James Wells on March 29, 1786, and surveyed June 1st of the same year. "Wellton" was warranted by Thomas Wells March 29, 1786; "Black Walnut Thicket," by James Wells on Aug. 4, 1788; "Sugar-Tree Run," by Richard Wells, Jan 9, 1788; and "Buffalo Lick," by Richard Wells, Jr., Jan. 22, 1788. In the first survey book of Yohogania County, opened in 1780, is found the following record of land taken up in Cross Creek township: "No. 12 Pre-emption Warrant. Alexander Wells produced a warrant from the land-office for one hundred acres of land, in right of pre-emption, dated March 23, 1780, No. 314, which he enters on lands adjoining his settlement made in 1776, on the waters of Cross Creek."

In the location of the large amount of land which Alexander Wells warranted in this vicinity, he was very careful to so run his lines that he cut off and prevented all other persons from gaining any of the water privilege of the streams upon which his lands were situated. Three of the tracts were made to corner in very acute angles on the Creek Bottom, near the old Patterson Fulling-Mill, while the dividing lines of the tracts cross and recross the stream at several points. But in 1794, Thomas Patterson, who was equally alive to the advantages of water-power, established the Patterson Mills upon the stream, securing a site for it and a right to reach the creek by purchasing two abutting patents. The first mills in this section of Cross Creek township were built by Alexander Wells in 1775, at the junction of the north branch of Cross Creek with the main stream. These mills were operated by himself in 1796, when the Western Telegraph, published on January 11th of that year, contained the following advertisement of his property: "I will sell sixteen hundred acres of land with my mills, and the property on which I live."

A store of general merchandise had been for some time in operation at these mills at the time the above offer of sale was announced, the proprietors announcing the fact through the following advertisement of Oct. 25, 1795: "John Kerr & Co. have opened and are now selling at Alexander Wells' mills, on Cross Creek, a neat assortment of merchandise suitable for the season, for cash or country produce."

Richard Wells was a nephew of Alexander Wells, and his son-in-law also, having married his daughter. When Alexander Wells advertised his property in 1796, it was purchased by Richard Wells, mills, homestead, and all entire. He continued the business until his death, when all the property except the mills was inherited by his youngest daughter, who was the wife of Thomas Patterson. The mills were left to Bazileel Wells, who operated them for some time and then sold them to Thomas Patterson. After conducting the business for a while, he in turn sold them to his brother, James Patterson, who prosecuted a very successful business for a year or two, when the mill again changed hands, David Campbell being the purchaser. William Bushfield afterwards came into possession of this property, and in time it was owned by William Fullerton, who was a member of a family of bachelor brothers and maiden sisters. Under this last proprietorship the mill ceased its functions as a grist-mill, after nearly a hundred years of continual service, and was remodeled into a woolen-factory. In this business it was run for a few years, but has now passed into disuse. The saw-mill is still in existence and operation, the water by which it is driven running through the same old race used when Alexander Wells started it. Alexander Wells died in 1813, aged eighty-six years, and was buried on the old homestead. Many of his descendants still remain in this section.

The fort known as Wells' Fort was located on Alexander Wells' land, a little east of the stone house built by Richard Wells, and now occupied by Oliver Clemmens.

Vance's Fort was situated one mile north of Cross Creek, upon land later owned and occupied by Allison Vance. It was at Vance's Fort that the first gospel sermon ever given in this township was preached. It was in the year 1778, and Rev. James Powers was the minister. His great-grandson, J. Torrance Powers, has since been Assistant Secretary of the Treasury at Washington, D. C. A copper half-penny, bearing the date 1740, was picked up not long ago where the old Vance Fort stood. It was at Vance's Fort that William Parks, a brother-in-law of Rev. Thomas Marques, was killed by Indians in 1782.

John Tennel came from Maryland to Cross Creek township with Alexander Wells and family about 1772, and settled upon a tract of land containing six hundred acres. Included in that property were the farms now belonging to William C. Jackson, the heirs of Hugh Thompson, and a part of those owned by R. M. Patterson and Giles and Thomas C. Lawton. Four hundred acres of the land Tennel located was patented to him March 26, 1789, under the title of "Prague." In 1790 he purchased more land, it being a tract that had been patented by William Patterson. In 1796, Mr. Tennel sold four hundred and fifty-four acres of his land, part of the tract "Prague," and the remainder made up from the Patterson tract, to Capt. John Johnston, who came with his family from Lancaster, Pa., and settled in this township. Having disposed of the rest of his land, Mr. Tennel removed with his large family to Kentucky.

Capt. Johnston was a Revolutionary soldier who took part in the battle of Brandywine. Upon the small stream that ran through his farm he built a mill, which was first run by water-power, but later steam was substituted. It is said to have been the first steam-mill known in Washington County. Capt. Johnston's family was four sons and five daughters, most of whom settled in Cross Creek township. Rebecca, one of the daughters, died here in 1873, aged ninety-six years. The sons - William, John, Thomas, and Robert - were all very active business men. In the year 1800, William went to New Orleans with a flat-boat loaded with flour. On his return by sea to New York he was attacked with ship-fever and died. The other sons all died in this township, - Thomas in 1838, John in 1850, aged eighty-five years, and Robert in 1852, at the age of seventy years. Old Capt. Johnston died here in 1821, at the remarkable age of one hundred and one years.

Samuel Johnston was a backwoodsman of Virginia, who came here in 1772 and made a tomahawk improvement. It is believed by many that he was the first person to invade and settle within the limits of Cross Creek township. It was through Col. James Marshel's assistance that Samuel Johnston later obtained the patent on his land, which is now owned by Thomas Marshall and Robert Jeffries. In 1817, Mr. Johnston sold it to David Martin, and removed to Wayne Co., Ohio, dying there soon afterwards. Descendants of Samuel Johnston in the families of Cummings, Ewing, and Henwood are still living in this vicinity.

The Rev. Thomas Marques and his brother John were among the early settlers of Cross Creek township. They were sons of Thomas and Mary (Colville) Marques, who lived in Opequan Valley, near Winchester, Va. Their father, Thomas, was a son of William and Margaret Marques, who emigrated from Ireland in 1720 and settled in Virginia. This family are descendants of French Huguenots who fled from France on account of religious persecutions and settled in Ireland.

John Marques, the third son of Thomas and Mary Marques, was born June 10, 1750; married Sarah Griffith, a daughter of Edward and Letitia (Blackburn) Griffith, of Frederick County, Va., afterwards of Washington County, Pa. John Marques was the first of his family to emigrate west of the mountains, settling on Cross Creek about 1774, on a tract of land for which he obtained a warrant Feb. 23, 1786, and afterwards received a patent. This tract was called "Marquesata," and contained four hundred and twenty-one acres and allowance, and embraced the farms now owned by H. C. Anderson, Robert Anderson, and a farm of Richard Wells called the "Mason Farm." For some time, on account of the Indian raids, he was obliged to keep his family in Vance's Fort, while he went back and forward to his farm. On one of these trips, while in his cabin, he heard the report of a rifle close at hand, and going out he saw a party of Indians killing his hogs. On seeing him they immediately gave chase. It was a race for life, and although the Indians were so close at the start he could hear the sound of their footsteps as they ran in the trail behind him, he soon distanced them and succeeded in getting safely into Vance's Fort. He was noted among the scouts' and backwoodsmen as a fleet runner, an accomplishment which was a good deal cultivated, as a man's life not unfrequently depended upon his speed. He was a man of strong and decided character, and was for many years an elder in Cross Creek Church. He died Feb. 25, 1822, He raised a family of nine children, all of whom grew to man and womanhood, married and raised families. Their names are Thomas, who married his cousin, Nancy Marques, of Winchester, Va.; Mary Marques, married Hon. Joshua Robb; of Bellefontaine, Ohio; John, who married Eliza Taggert; Sarah Marques, who married John Nelson, of Bellefontaine, Ohio; Edward, who married first, Margaret Marques, second, Elizabeth Newell; they lived and died near Mount Vernon, Ohio; Robert, who married, first, Hannah Vanordstrand, second, Mary Stevenson; James, who married, first, Nancy Roberts, second, Nancy Elliott; they lived and died near Mount Vernon, Ohio; William, who married Elizabeth Adams, lived and died near Tiffin, Ohio; Anne Marques married Isaac Morrison; they lived in Logan County, Ohio.

The only descendants of John and Sarah (Griffith) Marques now living in Washington County are the families of James T. Marques, son of John and Eliza (Taggart) Marques, and Rev. John S. Marques, son of Robert and Mary (Stevenson) Marques.

Rev. Thomas Marques, the fourth son of Thomas and Mary (Colville) Marques, was born in Opequan Valley, Virginia, in 1753; was married March 5, 1776, to Jane Park, and soon after they removed to Cross Creek. He settled on a tract of land, for which he took out a warrant Feb. 23, 1786, and afterwards obtained a patent. This tract was called "Marrigate," and contained four hundred and seventeen acres and allowance. This tract embraces one of the farms now owned by Richard Wells, the farm of the Beabout heirs, and a part of the Perrine tract. Afterwards by deed dated Aug. 27, 1794, he purchased from Alexander Wells, of Cross Creek, and Nathan Cromwell, of Baltimore, a tract of five hundred acres, embracing lands now owned by Hon. John S. Duncan, H. L. Duncan, John Lee, part of a tract owned by Craig Lee, called the McConnell farm, and a part of the farm now owned by Rev. J. S. Marques. His family were obliged to live in Vance's Fort to escape the Indian incursions, and while there he was converted, and by the advice of Revs. Smith and Dodd commenced to prepare himself for the ministry. His classical education was obtained at Canonsburg Academy, and he studied theology under the direction of Rev. Dr. McMillan and Rev. Joseph Smith; was licensed to preach the gospel by the Presbytery of Redstone at Dunlap's Creek, April 19, 1793. He soon received three calls, - from Bethel and Ebenezer, Ten Mile, and Cross Creek. The call from Cross Creek was dated Oct. 18, 1793, and was accepted on the 23d of April, 1794. He was a natural orator, and the tones of his voice were so musical that he was called the "Silver-tongued Marques." He continued to be pastor of Cross Creek for thirty-two years, resigning in 1825, but continuing to preach there until October 1826. He went to visit his son-in-law, Rev. Joseph Stevenson, at Bellefontaine, Ohio, and while there was taken down with fever, and died Sept. 27, 1827, and was buried in the cemetery at Bellefontaine.

Thomas Marques, as well as his brothers and sisters, were brought up from an early age (their father having been killed by a limb falling from a tree) under the direction of their uncle, John Wilson, who married their father's sister. He was a school-teacher, a well-educated and a religious man, who looked carefully after the instruction and training of the children. The children of Rev. Thomas and Jane (Park) Marques were William, married Sarah Marques, lived and died on his father's farm; James, married first Anne Marques, second Margaret McCune; Sarah Marques, married Rev. Joseph Stevenson, of Bellefontaine, Ohio; Mary Marques, married George Newell; Jane Marques, married Samuel Caldwell; Susannah Marques, married John Wilson Marques, and they afterwards lived and died in Logan County, Ohio; Anne Marques, married Joseph Clark, lived and died in Logan County, Ohio; Thomas Marques, son of Rev. Thomas, died while at Jefferson College, Canonsburg; was never married. All of the other children, with the exception of Anne, left descendants, some of whom still live in Washington County.

George Marques was among the early settlers on Cross Creek. On Nov. 1, 1776, he bought from Thomas Bay a tract of land on Cross Creek containing two hundred and sixty acres; also Sept. 18, 1787, he bought of John Marshall a tract of one hundred and ninety-six acres. He was one of the first elders in Cross Creek Presbyterian Church, and was leader of the music. He was a cousin of John and Rev. Thomas Marques. He afterwards sold his land and removed to Mercer County, Pa., in which section a number of his descendants still reside.

Among the early settlers in what is now Cross Creek township were members of the Crawford family, whose earlier residence was in Maryland. Oliver and Thomas Crawford were the eldest of two sons of Margaret Crawford, a widow, who lived at Kenick's Gig, in that State. When these two were but lads they were taken prisoners by Indians and carried into captivity, where they remained till Oliver was twenty and Thomas eighteen years of age, when they were brought back to their mother by an Indian trader. Oliver married and moved out to the Monongahela to the Redstone settlement, where he raised a large family, who with himself finally moved to what was then called "Kayntuck."

Thomas married about the year 1770, and in the spring of 1774, with his wife and two children and his aged mother, removed to Cross Creek and settled on the Hays farm, near the Beech Knob school-house. Here he commenced an improvement, and took up some two hundred and fifty acres of land. About the year 1778 he lost his aged mother. She was buried under the old white-oak tree in the old graveyard at Cross Creek, and was the second person buried there. Soon after this he removed to another part of his land, where Thomas Andrew now resides. Here he lived until his death, which occurred in June, 1783. The land that he held at the time of his death is still held by his descendants. William Perry, Esq., owned the spot where he died, his wife being a great-grandchild. He was also the grandfather of the venerable Thomas Marshall, of Cross Creek township, and also of Mrs. Dr. Creigh, of Washington, Pa.

William Reynolds came into Cross Creek township as early as 1775, and upon a Virginia certificate took up three hundred and ninety-nine acres of land next to lands of James Jackson, Samuel Patterson, and Thomas Marques. This tract was surveyed Dec. 4, 1785, and given the name of "Reynoldsville." It was the farm now owned by William Dunbar, one and one-half miles southwest of Cross Creek village. It was often termed the Old Wilson farm. Mr. Reynolds had built upon his land a block-house, which occupied the site of the present owner's barn. This fort was the refuge of the families of James Jackson, James Colwell, Widow Mary Patterson, Ephraim Hart, and all other neighbors near enough to avail themselves of its protection against the Indians. In the summer of 1779 the Indians attacked Reynolds' house during his absence, carried off his wife and child, and while on the way to their towns west of the Ohio, being hotly pursued and attacked by Reynolds and a small party of whites, they murdered Mrs. Reynolds and the child. Reynolds would never again live on the farm, but sold to Joseph Patterson, who afterwards became the Rev. Joseph Patterson of Raccoon Church. The whites who were in this encounter were the Rev. Thomas Marques, John Marques, his brother, and Robert McCready. The two latter are buried in the old graveyard at Cross Creek.

Mr. Reynolds removed to Ohio in 1801. David Reynolds, an elder brother, who came to Cross Creek township with William Reynolds, located land on the main branch of Cross Creek. The property is now known as the Neil farm, and is owned by John F. Sharp. David Reynolds died in 1809, and was buried in the Buffalo Church cemetery.

Robert Rutherford came from Virginia, and took up large tracts of land, which are now within the limits of Cross Creek, Smith, and Mount Pleasant townships. The first tract was granted on pre-emption warrant No. 29, dated June 17, 1780, which gave him one thousand acres of land, "including an improvement made by Henry Highland in 1774." On Dec. 23, 1779, the State of Virginia certificated to Robert Rutherford twenty-five hundred acres of land, situated on the southwest branch of Raccoon Creek, adjoining the tracts of Alexander Wells and James Stephenson. Two thousand acres of this body of land, which is in the townships of Cross Creek and Mount Pleasant, were sold by Rutherford to Samuel and Robert Purviance, April 25, 1782. They sold a portion of it to James Campbell, and now the entire property is owned by John Campbell, Jefferson Lyle, William or Martin Robb, Moses Lyle, and the McGugan heirs. The remaining portion of Rutherford's land was in Cross Creek and Smith townships. It is now owned by Walter C. Lee, Hugh Lee, Allison Vance, William K. Lyle, James Buchanan, the heirs of David and Perry Cook, Col. Samuel Magill, Abraham Pry, John Johnson, William McCurg, Mr. Russell, and part of the lots of Cross Creek village.

Henry Graham came from Chester County, in this State, and settled in Cross Creek township in 1776. For the land on which he made settlement he received a Virginia certificate in February, 1780. It was situated on the waters of Cross Creek, bounded on two sides by the lands of Robert Rutherford, and on the other two sides by James Jackson and John Marques' property. This property of Henry Graham is now comprised in the farms of Rev. John S. Marques and the estate of Rev. John Stockton, D.D., and a part of the site of Cross Creek village. Afterwards Mr. Graham purchased tracts of Dorsey Pentecost, land agent, of Samuel and Robert Purviance, of Hugh H. Brackenridge, and of Thomas Marques a part of the tract patented to Alexander Wells and Nathan Cromwell, June 6, 1780, and bounded by lands of Thomas and John Marques and David Henderson. Mr. Graham sold portions of his property at different times, including a sale of forty-two acres to James Kirk (which was no doubt the land upon which Graham & Kirk had built their tannery in 1780, and which was continued in operation by various proprietors until the year 1854), and a sale to David Williams of three acres of land, which was divided into lots in Cross Creek village. David Williams built the first brick house in the village.

Henry Graham was one of a party who emigrated to this country together, a part of whom settled on Pigeon Creek, in the townships of Chartiers, Hopewell, and Buffalo. On their journey over the mountains they entered into an agreement to establish a church wherever they concluded to settle. Mr. Graham was very active in the organization of Cross Creek Presbyterian Church, and donated the land upon which the church edifice was erected. In August, 1790, he was chosen to the office of justice of the peace for Cross Creek township, in which position he served the people faithfully and with credit. That portion of Cross Creek village which has been built upon the land of Henry Graham was laid out before his death, which occurred in 1827. He left but one son, John Graham, who died three years later. After the death of John Graham his children inherited all the property of their father and grandfather. The son Joseph thus came into possession of the homestead.

Thomas Beatty was a native of Ireland, who emigrated to this country, and located first in Fayette County. Later, about the year 1779, he came to Cross Creek township, and took up a three-hundred-acre tract of land called "Victory." Mr. Beatty died June 11, 1816, aged sixty-nine years, and his wife died in 1825. The property descended to their sons and daughters, who all died many years ago. In 1827 Robert Simpson purchased one hundred and forty acres of the land, which is now owned by James Simpson. The remainder belongs to Simeon and Eli Marques.

Joseph Patterson came from Maryland in the autumn of 1779, and settled in this township. Mr. Patterson was a Seceder from the north of Ireland. In the Cross Creek Church, after coming to this township, he was a ruling elder, and finally studied for and entered the ministry. He eventually removed to Robinson township, where he had pastoral charge of the Raccoon Congregational Church. Before leaving this township Rev. Mr. Patterson sold his property here to James Jackson. Mr. Jackson and his family removed to Ashland, County, Ohio, and the farm is now owned by John F. Sharp.

John Campbell was born in York County, Pa., and came to this township in 1778 or 1779. He located a tract of one hundred and ninety-one acres, which was called "Fumanah," the warrant for it being dated Sept, 3, 1785, and the patent granted April 4, 1787. His family numbered six sons and three daughters. Of the sons, John, William and James went to Belmont County, Ohio. The other sons, David, Charles, and George, all remained in Cross Creek, and some of their descendants still own and occupy a part of the old homestead farm. The daughter Grace became the wife of Maj. Benjamin Bay, and they removed to Ohio in 1812. Elizabeth Campbell married William Rea, a son of Squire William Rea, and they reside on the Rea homestead. Mary, the third daughter of John Campbell, married William Fulton, and they are still living in Mount Pleasant township. George Campbell, Jr., a son of George and grandson of John Campbell, lives at Midway, in Robinson township. John Campbell died in 1813, and was buried in Cross Creek Cemetery. William M. Campbell, son of Charles and grandson of John Campbell, is a descendant, and occupies a part of the old homestead.

Joseph Reed was a native of Ireland, who emigrated to America prior to 1763, settling first in Lancaster County, having married Miss Jeannette Brotherton. Rev. Joseph Smith was at that time also residing in York County. In 1779 Rev. Mr. Smith received a call to take charge of the Upper Buffalo and Cross Creek congregations in this vicinity, which he accepted, and Joseph Reed was employed to convey the clergyman and his family to their new home in this county. Mr. Reed did not come himself, but sent his son-in-law, also named Joseph Reed, to drive the team. In return for these services the congregations who extended the call purchased for Mr. Reed a tract of land in Cross Creek township, called "Pensacola," containing one hundred and ninety acres and seventy-five perches, with six per cent. allowance for roads. Joseph Reed did not remove to this county, but in addition to the "Pensacola" tract he bought three hundred and sixty-nine acres of land in Cross Creek township, about one mile east of the first tract granted him. He served as colonel in the earlier part of the Revolutionary war, and was appointed quartermaster. In 1784 he was a member of the Pennsylvania State Legislature. He died in 1804 at his home in York County. By his will the tract of three hundred and sixty-nine acres of land which he purchased in this township was divided into two parcels; one, comprising the east half of the tract, and containing two hundred and ten acres, was bequeathed to James Reed, his eldest son, who had occupied the property prior to this time. The other parcel of one hundred and fifty-nine acres was divided into three equal parts. The first one-third was left to his daughter Agnes and her husband, Joseph Reed. The second one-third was given to the daughter Margaret and her husband, James McNary, and is now the property of Robert Withrow and his wife, Rhoda, who is a granddaughter of Joseph Reed. The last portion was given by Joseph Reed to his daughter Esther, who was the wife of Evan Turk. They never occupied their inheritance, but sold it to James McNary.

Joseph Reed, the son-in-law of Joseph Reed, who brought Rev. Joseph Smith to this township in 1779, returned here in 1790 and settled upon the farm now owned by John C. Rea. After living there a number of years he removed to the present property of William J. Patterson, residing upon that until his death. Following this event was the removal of his family to Armstrong County, in this State, where some of his children still live. James Reed, the eldest son of Joseph Reed, inherited, as stated, the larger portion of his father's last land purchase in this township. He had several sons and daughters, who came into possession of his property at his death. Mary, one of the daughters, became the wife of Joseph Lyle, of Mount Pleasant township, which is now their home. Joseph, one of the sons, married Miss Beatty and went to Richland County, Ohio. William married Rosanna Lyle, a daughter of Aaron Lyle, of Cross Creek township. The sons James and John remained on the farm together for a number of years, when they divided it and each sold his share. Thomas Marshall purchased and now occupies James' portion, and John disposed of his to Alexander B. Reed, removing to Hardin County, Ky., where he still lives.

Nicholas Reed was another of the sons of Joseph Reed, whose home was in York County. After his father came into possession of the tract "Pensacola," he married Elizabeth Fulton and came to Cross Creek and settled upon it. His cabin stood upon the site of the present residence of J. C. Reed, and remained until the year 1867, when William Reed, a son of Nicholas and father of J. C. Reed, replaced it with the present dwelling-house. Nicholas Reed died in 1854, leaving seven sons and two daughters, - Joseph, James, William, Hugh, Samuel, John, Robert, Jane, and Eliza. James went to Huron County, Ohio, where he died at an early age, and Joseph settled in Richland County of the same State. William was a cabinet maker, married Isabella Curry, daughter of Robert Curry, Sr., and settled in this township. In 1838 he removed to the farm of his father, Nicholas Reed, but two years later went into Allegheny County. He remained there until 1845, and then came back upon the homestead. At the death of his father in 1854 he bought the interests of the other heirs and became sole owner of "Pensacola." In 1859 he deeded one hundred and three acres of the tract to his son, James M. K. Reed, who yet occupies the property. The rest of the real estate, including the homestead lot, was left by William Reed at his death to his other son, John C. Reed, who now resides upon it.

James Patterson was the first member of that family who settled in this country, having come to America in 1728. His son William was born in 1733, and in 1758 married Rosanna Scott, of Cecil County, Md., by whom he had four sons and one daughter. His wife died April 5, 1769, and he was married a second time to Elizabeth Brown, April 10, 1770, a family of ten children being born to this last marriage. In the spring of 1778, William Patterson, with two or three of his sons, came into Cross Creek township and settled upon a tract of land containing three hundred and fifty acres. Before coming here William Patterson and two of his sons had seen something of military life, having been engaged in one or two campaigns in the Revolutionary war. During the summer following their advent into this township the Pattersons built a house, cleared some ground, and put in what crops they could, and in the fall all, except the son Thomas, returned to the old home to bring out the rest of the family. During their absence Thomas boarded with the widow, Mrs. Mary Patterson, whose land adjoined that of his father. William Patterson returned with his entire family to Cross Creek township, and continued to live upon the land he had located until his death, which occurred in 1818 at the age of more that eighty years.

Thomas Patterson, son of William Patterson, was born Oct. 1, 1764. In 1794 he purchased land of his father, upon which he built a grist- and flouring-mill, the mill being situated upon the north branch of Cross Creek. At the same time he bought the property of the widow Mary Patterson (that upon which John Boyce now lives), and not long after enlarged his estate by purchases from the Wells tracts. Oct. 6, 1795, he married Elizabeth Findley, a daughter of Hon. William Findley, of Westmoreland County, Pa. He had built a log house upon his land, in a part of which he kept a general store, but after his marriage the stock was removed to his mill, which was then in operation. In this log house Thomas and Elizabeth Patterson lived, and here their eleven children - eight sons and three daughters - were born. Mr. Patterson was very active in all church affairs, being an elder in one of the Cross Creek churches for many years. He also held all the commissions of militia rank to that of major-general, and during the last war with Great Britain organized and led a force into Ohio to repel a supposed British invasion.

He was a member of Congress from 1817 to 1825, being elected during the administration of James Monroe, and was a member of the Electoral College in 1816. Gen. Patterson died of apoplexy Nov. 17, 1841, aged seventy-seven years. His sons were William, James, Samuel, John, Thomas, Findley, Moses, and David Patterson. The daughters were Mary, Elizabeth, and Rosanna Patterson. William, the oldest son of Gen. Thomas Patterson, was born Sept.25, 1796. Upon him gradually devolved the management of his father's extensive business interests. His wife was Margaret, a daughter of Hon. Carson Lyle, of Cross Creek township. His first experience in business was the management of the farm and flouring-mills, which his father intrusted to him at a very early age, in consequence of his absence at Congress. This was no small responsibility for a youth, as the business was conducted on a large scale, much larger than that of any other in the region at that time. In 1812, on account of the demand for woolen goods created by the war with Great Britain, his father erected a fulling-mill. Over this William was placed after he had acquired a thorough knowledge of the business, under the instruction of a competent fuller named Jonathan McCombs. Aside from his industrial habits, he was somewhat distinguished as an officer in the militia, which was then quite prominent in the public esteem. A company was raised and commanded by him, belonging to a battalion then called the "Union Volunteer Battalion," organized in accordance with the State law of that period. He also occupied a position on the staff of the brigadier-general of militia with the rank of major. Having become well known to the people, he was chosen to represent them in the popular branch of the State Legislature in the year 1828, being re-elected for four terms, during the last of which (1834) he served as Speaker of the House. His deep interest in educational matters made him a warm advocate of the public school law, and largely instrumental in having it put into practical operation in his own county. At his instance, and much at his expense, an elegant school building, looked upon for many years as a model, was erected a few rods from his residence. Serving a long period as a director, he used his influence to secure such a high grade of teachers as rendered the new system a success in his own neighborhood, equal if not beyond that of any other in the country. During his legislative service, on the application of the Rev. Matthew Brown, D.D., president of Jefferson College, for an appropriation from the State, he succeeded in securing the handsome sum of $8000, which was used in the erection of a new college building.

After the death of his father he came into possession of the farm and mill property, on account of which he was very closely occupied in the management of his own private business. Yet he continued to manifest a deep interest in public affairs. In 1844 he was chosen a member of the Electoral College. This was his last appearance in public life. Retiring from active business in 1859, he spent his declining years in well-earned repose in the family of his eldest son, with the companion of his youth, to whom he had been united in marriage sixty years on the 29th of April preceding his death.

Of the other sons of Gen. Thomas Patterson, James, the second, was both a merchant and farmer at Patterson's Mills. He died in 1860, and his son, Thomas, Jr., inherited his property. Samuel Patterson, the third son, was also a farmer, and settled on the farm now owned by his son, Robert M. Patterson, which is a portion of the original Capt. William Patterson tract. Samuel Patterson made a specialty of sheep-raising and wool-growing, and was much interested and very successful in improving the quality of his wool. In 1846 he purchased a farm in Eastern Virginia, whither he removed with his family and died there.

John, fourth son of Gen. Thomas Patterson, removed from Cross Creek township to Armstrong County, in this State. He served one term in the State Legislature from that section.

Thomas Patterson, the fifth son, married a daughter of Richard Wells, and settled upon a portion of the old Alexander Wells homestead. Later he removed to Illinois, and thence to Nebraska.

Findley Patterson, who was the sixth son of Gen. Thomas Patterson, married a sister of Hon. John A. Bingham. He was the one selected from among the heirs to go to Armstrong County, Pa., to survey the large landed estate of his grandfather, Hon. William Findley. In Armstrong County he became an extensive mill-owner, and also filled many important offices. He served three successive terms in the State Senate; also served in the Lower House of the Legislature, and was twice elected Speaker; was appointed revenue commissioner in 1843. In 1850 he went overland to California, and spent a year there successfully. In 1857 he was appointed by the President receiver in the land-office in Kansas, and held the position four years. Having returned to Washington County, he was, in the fall of 1878, elected a representative in the State Legislature from this county, and while there was an active member of several important committees. In whatever public or private business Mr. Findley Patterson has ever been engaged, he has always proved himself most thorough and efficient in its management.

Josiah Patterson, born Nov. 10, 1783, in Cross Creek township, was a son of William Patterson by his second marriage. April 13, 1809, he married Ann Templeton, and they had a family of ten children, - John, William, Thomas, Joseph, Nathan, Elizabeth, Ann, David, Esther, and Rachel. Josiah Patterson was a farmer in this township, and died upon his homestead in February, 1843, aged sixty years. His sons Joseph and Nathan still reside in this township, the latter upon his father's farm, and William and Elizabeth (Mrs. Smiley) are residents of Mount Pleasant township.

Nathan Patterson was also a son of William Patterson's second marriage. He was born Sept. 11, 1788, and Oct. 14, 1816, married Lydia Houston. They settled in Cross Creek township. Their children were Daniel, William, John, Nathan, and Mary Patterson. The father, Nathan Patterson, Sr., died in February, 1846, at fifty-eight years of age. The son, William Patterson, is now living at Patterson's Mills, in this township. Daniel and Mary, who married Mr. Atchison, removed to Iowa, and John and Nathan, who lived in Cross Creek township, died, leaving no descendants. Mrs. Hannah Vance was a daughter of Capt. William Patterson by his second wife, Elizabeth Brown. She was born May 22, 1786, at the old Patterson homestead, near Patterson's Mills. Mrs. Vance was the youngest of the Patterson family who emigrated to Cross Creek, and when she died, in May, 1879, she still retained her mental faculties in full. She was buried in Cross Creek Cemetery. Her husband, Hon. William Vance, was a representative in the State Legislature from this county in 1816 and 1817.

Of William Patterson's first family of children, John settled in Belmont, Ohio, from which place he was elected to Congress in 1822; Samuel, another son, was killed by the Indians in 1787, while he was boating flour on the Wabash River to Vincennes, Ind.

Col. James Marshel1 was a resident of Cross Creek township as early as 1778. On December 26th of that year he purchased of Jacob Frederick "a tract of land situated on the head-waters of Cross Creek, in the counties of Yohogania and Ohio, and State of Virginia," said tract containing four hundred acres with allowance, and the consideration being L419 13s. 9d. "Marshel Hall" was the name given to a tract of four hundred and thirty-two acres which was warranted and surveyed to Col. Marshel in 1785, adjoining the lands of Thomas McKibbin, Robert, John, and Thomas Marshall, and Samuel Johnston. The middle branch of Cross Creek runs through this place. "Mecklenburg" must have been Col. Marshel's next land purchase. This tract he secured from Francis McKinne, to whom it was warranted Feb. 13, 1786, and afterwards surveyed as containing four hundred and one acres, located next other lands of James Marshel and those of David Vance and John Campbell. "The Point" was a tract of three hundred and fifty-eight acres which Col. Marshel warranted in March, 1786, and then deeded part of it to Mr. Johnston, who lived upon it. On April 20, 1781, the Supreme Executive Council of the State of Pennsylvania appointed Col. James Marshel county lieutenant of Washington County. He was also recorder of deeds and register of wills for Washington County from 1781 to 1784, and from 1791 to 1795. He was also sheriff of the county from 1784 to 1787. During the years of his official life, Col. Marshel resided the principal part of the time at the county-seat, where his public duties required his constant attention. He was a prominent actor in the events of the Whiskey Insurrection of 1794, as elsewhere mentioned. Soon after the close of the insurrection (in September, 1795) he advertised thirteen hundred acres of patented and improved lands on Cross Creek for sale. This must have been preparatory to his removing from Cross Creek township to Brooke County, Va., which he did at about that time. Col. Marshel's wife was his cousin, a sister of Robert and John Marshall. Their son, John Marshel, was elected sheriff of Washington County in 1835, served one year, and then resigned to accept the position of cashier of the Franklin Bank, in Washington, Pa., where he remained several years. Col. James Marshel died at his home in Brooke County, Va., in 1829. "Marshel Hall." his home in this township, is now owned by Thomas and Thomas B. McCorkle. [1Col. James Marshel and his son John always spelled their surname in this peculiar way - Marshel. The cousins of Col. Marshel, though of the same family, spelled their name in the usual way - Marshall.]

Col. John and Robert Marshall (half-brothers) were cousins of Col. James Marshel. They came here together in 1779 from Lancaster County, and both purchased land of Col. James Marshel. Robert Marshel continued to live upon his purchase in Cross Creek township until his death, which occurred in 1833, at seventy-three years of age. His wife survived him until 1858, and died at the age of eighty-nine years. Their only daughter, Esther Marshel, is living near Mount Prospect Church, in Mount Pleasant township, and the old farm is now owned by Robert Jeffries, and occupied by Robert Jeffries, Jr.

Col. James Marshel was a captain in the Revolutionary war, and was wounded at the battle of Brandywine, Sept. 11, 1777. He was afterwards colonel in the Washington County militia. In August, 1781, he was appointed a justice of the peace for Hopewell township, which at that time embraced the whole territory now Cross Creek township. In 1802-5 he was a member of the House of Repre- sentatives in the Pennsylvania Legislature. In 1820, Col. Marshel sold the two-hundred-acre tract which he had purchased of Col. James Marshel to Walter Craig, and removed to Crawford County, Ohio, where he died soon after. This land was adjoining the "Pensacola" tract of Joseph Reed. Mr. Craig resided upon it but a few years, when he sold it and removed to Cross Creek village. It is now in the possession of David E. McNary.

Thomas and William Marshall were brothers, and natives of Ireland, who came into this section at least as early as 1779. Thomas Marshall located upon the land now owned by R. T. Johnson, upon which he had a distillery in operation in 1784. He was an elder in Cross Creek Church. In 1800 he sold his property in this township to Col. James Marshel, and removed to Smith township, in this county. In 1827 he again sold out, going to Ohio, where he died in 1839, at the age of ninety-six years. The property which Thomas Marshall owned in Cross Creek township was warranted to him March 31, 1786, and surveyed Oct. 24, 1787. The tract contained four hundred and five acres, was called "Buck Forest," and was bounded by the lands of William Reynolds, John Marshall, John Tennel, and Thomas Marques.

William Marshall, who came out with his brother Thomas in 1779, settled upon the farm now occupied by David Gault. Mr. Marshall had left his family in Ireland, and in 1783, having sent for them, started for Philadelphia to meet them. They had arrived earlier than he expected them, and had journeyed from Philadelphia to Chartiers township, in this county, where the husband and father found them at the home of Andrew Russell. Mr. Marshall sold his property here in 1817, and with all his family except the son William removed to the State of Ohio. William Marshall, the son just mentioned, married Ann Crawford, a daughter of Thomas Crawford, and through the inheritance of his wife came into possession of a portion of the Hugh Stephenson land. The property is now occupied by some of their descendants, and William Perry, S. L. and Matthew McCollough. Mr. Marshall died in 1860, aged ninety-three years, and his wife survived him but a month, dying at the age of ninety years. Their son, Thomas Marshall, is still living in this township, and is now eighty-two years old.

Thomas Bay was a resident of Cross Creek township before the year 1780, living upon the five-hundred-acre tract of land which he located here. It was the farm adjoining that of Squire Rea, and which is now owned by Arnold Lawton, and occupied by his son, Arnold Lawton, Jr. Mr. Bay's early home was a strong house, into which all the immediate neighbors gathered when alarmed by the Indians. In 1780 he furnished supplies for the government, as shown by the minutes of the Supreme Executive Council of the State of Pennsylvania. Besides his property in this township, Mr. Bay also located in Smith township. In 1812, when he removed to Ohio, he sold the Cross Creek property to Daniel Huston, who lived upon it until his death in 1829. The land in Smith township was sold to James Stephenson, and is now the property of John B. and James Hayes. Mr. Bay was a man of much note and influence, and his removal to Ohio was greatly regretted by his townsmen. His large family of sons and daughters accompanied him.

Jacob Buxton came to what is now Cross Creek township in 1880. He was an Englishman by birth. He located first in Fayette County, and from there attempted to go down the river to Kentucky, but his boat was snagged near Georgetown, and all his goods were lost. He then gave up the idea, and in the spring of 1780 bought the farm in this township where Samuel K. White at present resides. It was sold to Buxton by Joseph Armstrong, of Ohio County, Va., for ***L85***, "paid in grain." The sale was of "three hundred acres of land and implements," dated Jan. 29, 1780.

Jacob Buxton resided upon the place until his death in 1836, when he had reached the age of eighty-six years. His wife died in 1842, forty-two years of age. Before Mr. Buxton's death he gave his son, Aaron Buxton, one hundred acres of the original farm. He died in 1861, and his son, Richard F. Buxton, owns and lives upon it. The remaining portion of the old farm was sold in 1836 to Col. James Lee, who, in 1844, disposed of it to William White, and his son, Samuel White, is the present owner.

William Scott received in 1780 a Virginia certificate for "Bowling Green," a tract of land in this township, containing three hundred and eighty-one acres, next the lands of Alexander Wells and Alexander Nesbitt. April 3, 1787, he sold the property to William Cuttreaugh. In the conveyance it was described as situated on Cross Creek, and "including the settlement of the said William Scott, made by John Doddridge, for which the said William Scott obtained a certificate of settlement right from the commissioners of the State of Virginia." In December, 1781, Mr. Scott was appointed agent of forfeited estates for the county of Washington.

Joseph Scott was a brother of William Scott, and came into the township at the same time. Some time before 1788 Joseph took up or purchased three hundred and fifty acres of land, which he resided upon until his death in 1825. What further land investments he made is not known, but the assessment rolls of 1791 show him to have been assessed that year upon four hundred acres. In 1781 he was a justice of the peace in this township, and in 1791 a mill was in operation upon his farm. Descendants of Joseph Scott still reside in this township, but his original land property is owned by John and Harvey Lawton.

Robert Curry was a native of Scotland, who emigrated to America in 1782. On his voyage across the ocean he had for a fellow-passenger Miss Isabella McKenzie, who had left the Highlands of Scotland to find another home across the sea. From strangers they became acquaintances, and upon arrival in this country were married. They came at once to the Monongahela country, and lived for a time at Fort Pitt. Mr. Curry was a cooper. Thinking to improve the prospects of himself and family, they removed in 1790 to Wheeling, Va., settling near the fort then located there. Eventually they removed to Cross Creek village, where they lived many years, he dying June 25, 1838, aged eighty-four years, and she living until March 28, 1856, when she died at the great age of ninety-eight years. Their children were eight daughters and four sons. Robert Curry lived near Hanlan's Station, in Hanover township, where he died in 1866. The daughter Nancy became Mrs. David Caldwell, and lived in Mount Pleasant township. John Curry married and lived and died near Claysville. Archibald was a bachelor. He and Robert were in the army at Black Rock, N. Y., in 1814. These three brothers, John, Robert, and Archibald Curry, made several trips to New Orleans in flat-boats; on one occasion Archibald walking the entire distance home. Another and a fourth son of Robert Curry, Sr., was at one time deputy State superintendent of public instruction of Pennsylvania. In 1876 he was appointed superintendent of the State Normal School in Nebraska, an important position that he still holds. Two of the eight daughters of Robert Curry, Sr., are also still living, - Mrs. Sarah O. Stevenson, of Smith township, and Mrs. William Van Ostrand, of Cross Creek village.

David and Robert McComb were brothers, who emigrated from their home in Scotland to America, and both took part in the Revolutionary war. They came into this township as soon as they left the service, and their father, Robert McComb, Sr., who came with them, purchased four hundred acres of land, which he divided equally, giving each son two hundred acres. Robert McComb, Sr., died in 1794, in Cross Creek township. Robert McComb, Jr., lived upon the farm his father gave him until his death in 1827. About the year 1795 he built a fulling-mill on Cross Creek, upon the site of which the Wilson grist-mill now stands. The "Western Telegraphe" of May 6, 1796, contains his advertisement announcing that he had "erected a fulling-mill on Cross Creek, one mile from James Monsey's mill." His farm is now owned by the heirs of John Manson. David McComb also spent his days upon the property his father purchased for him, dying there in 1837 at the age of seventy-eight years.

Andrew Ritchie, who was a Revolutionary soldier, came to this township just after the close of the war and settled on Muller's Run. In 1796 he bought a farm of Ephraim Hart, the one that has since been known as the Ritchie farm. He had a son James, who lived upon the farm with his parents. He died in 1834, at forty-five years of age. The wife of Andrew Ritchie and mother of James died in the same year, aged seventy-nine years, and Mr. Ritchie's death occurred four years later, when he was eighty-five years old. Andrew S. Ritchie, clerk in the First National Bank in Washington borough, is a son of James and grandson of Andrew Ritchie.

Aaron Lyle was a native of Northampton, Mass., and came into Washington County in the fall of 1784. He settled and always lived on a tract of land, the farm now owned and occupied by William Rankin, Jr. In 1790 he purchased one hundred and fifty acres of land, which was added to the farm he already owned. Aaron Lyle was a Revolutionary soldier, and when he participated in the battle of Long Island, N. Y., which took place Aug. 27, 1776, he was but sixteen years of age. He was a member of the House of Representatives in the Pennsylvania State Legislature from 1798 to 1801, and again in 1805. In 1808 he was elected to Congress, and continued to represent this district there until 1816. In 1807, before his election to Congress, he served as county commissioner in Washington County. Mr. Lyle died in 1825, aged sixty-nine years. His children were three sons and four daughters, - Moses, James, Robert, Mary, Ellen, Margaret, and Jane. Ellen died very young; James died in Smith township in 1806; and Moses, who lived on the homestead, died in 1840. After his death the home farm was sold in 1846, and now belongs to David Gault. Moses Lyle was elected to the office of county commissioner in 1817. Robert Lyle was a physician, and practiced in Cross Creek township for several years. He finally removed to Steubenville, and from there went West. The daughter Mary became the wife of John Campbell, and went to a Western State, and Margaret, who married Hon. William Patterson, is still living at Patterson's Mills, in this township. Jane Lyle became the wife of Samuel Ewing, the son of Thomas Ewing, of North Strabane township, in Washington County. Hon. Thomas Ewing, of Pittsburgh, is a son of Samuel and Jane Ewing.

Thomas Ewing came from the north of Ireland to this country, and settled first, as stated, in North Strabane township in 1794. On April 10, 1815, he purchased sixty acres of land of Samuel Johnston in Cross Creek township. This was a part of the tract "The Point," which was warranted and patented April 18, 1788, to Col. James Marshel in trust for Samuel Johnston, and which Col. Marshel deeded to Mr. Johnston Dec. 13, 1793. Thomas Ewing's wife was Miss Esther McNary, and their son Samuel married Miss Jane Lyle, as mentioned in the history of the Lyle family. Hon. Thomas Ewing, of Pittsburgh, son of Samuel, and grandson of Thomas Ewing, Sr., is judge of one of the courts in that city.

Several persons of the name Stevenson, or Stephenson, as it is often spelled, have lived and owned property in Cross Creek township, but nothing is found to indicate any relationship between them. Col. Hugh Stevenson was granted, July 5, 1774, one thousand acres of land on a military warrant. One hundred and four acres of this tract, situated on the waters of Cross Creek, is now owned by S. L. McCullough. James Stevenson received two certificates, granting him seven hundred and seventy-seven acres of land in this section, adjoining two of the Robert Rutherford tracts. This land was surveyed to James Stevenson, June 28, 1790, and is now occupied by William and Robert Stevenson and other Stevenson heirs. It has remained in the family from the first.

The records show that in 1791, John Stevenson was assessed upon three hundred acres of land. John Stevenson died on this property in 1819, aged eighty-six years. After this event his son, John, Jr., remained upon the place until 1840, when he died. The property was still held by the descendants of John Stevenson until 1875, when it passed into the hands of John S. Lee and H. L. Duncan, who now own it. The Rev. John S. Marques is a grandson of John Stevenson, Jr.

Andrew Ferguson, who was a native of Maryland, followed his brother-in-law, Rev. Joseph Smith, to this county in 1786, and settled in what is now Cross Creek township, where he purchased a farm of Thomas Bay. It was the one on which D. M. Steqart now resides, and upon it Mr. and Mrs. Ferguson lived and died. Their seven children were David, Andrew, Samuel, Benjamin, Joseph, Mary, and Abigail Ferguson. Andrew died before 1812, and Samuel, who went to Ohio to reside, died there in 1841. David was engaged in several campaigns against the Indians. He finally made a trip down the river, from which he never returned. Joseph Ferguson, the youngest son, removed to Guernsey County, Ohio. His son, Rev. William M. Ferguson, is a prominent Presbyterian clergyman in Fredericktown, Knox Co., in the same State. The daughter, Mary Ferguson, became the wife of James Cummings, of Cross Creek township, who was killed in the war of 1812.

Robert Armstrong came from Ireland to this country accompanied by his family, and in 1787 settled in Cross Creek township on the farm now in the possession of Hugh Lee, one mile southwest of Cross Creek Church. On March 30, 1789, he purchased one hundred and seven acres of land of Henry Graham in addition to his first purchase. In 1787, the first year of Mr. Armstrong's residence here, his son, Adam Armstrong, a young man of twenty-one years of age, died. Mrs. Armstrong died in 1796, and the husband and father in 1810. At his death the property passed into the hands of his four daughters, - Sarah, Miriam, Anna, and Jane Armstrong, - none of whom ever married. The farm was finally sold, and the daughters removed to Cross Creek village, where they all died.

William Rea came from Northampton County, in this State, to Cross Creek township in 1789, and purchased one hundred and eighty-five acres of land of George Marques. In the spring of 1790 he made a permanent settlement here, where he spent the remainder of his life. William Rea was identified with the early history of the Cross Creek schools as one of the most efficient teachers, and in 1823 he was a justice of the peace for the territory including Cross Creek, Hopewell, and Mount Pleasant townships. He died in 1835, aged seventy-two years. His grandsons, William, Charles C., and Joseph V. Rea, now own the old homestead and other of the Rea lands.

Francis McCauley, who was of Scotch descent, was settled in Cross Creek prior to 1791, and had possession of one hundred and fifty acres of land, that upon which John N. Walker now resides. Mr. McCauley remained upon the farm of his early settlement until his death, in 1825, when his son, John McCauley, sold it to James Patterson. David Ramsey, of Hopewell township, is a grandson of Francis McCauley.

Isaac Martin was a resident and property-holder of Cross Creek township before 1791, his name appearing among the taxables in that year. He died in 1806, and left his farm to his son, who very soon sold it, and the land at present belongs to R. B. Thompson, David Cummings, and Joseph Patterson.

On March 22, 1794, Peter Perrine purchased the tract of land in this township called "Buffalo Lick," containing three hundred acres, from Richard Wells, Jr., who had received a warrant of acceptance for it dated Jan. 22, 1788. This land Peter Perrine settled upon, and there passed the remainder of his life. He had several sons. Of these Nicholas, James, and Stephen Perrine emigrated to Ohio. Benjamin removed to Harmon's Creek, where he lived and died, and Isaac remained upon the old homestead. Isaac Perrine's sons were Peter, John, Robert, Isaac H., Samuel, and James. Peter is in Steubenville, Ohio, John and Samuel live in Burgettstown, Isaac H. went to the West, and Robert occupies the old Perrine farm, as did his father before him.

Walter McClurg was a native of Ireland, who in the early part of the year 1794 settled in this section. For the consideration of thirty-five pounds he bought seventy acres of land of Henry Purviance, a part of that patented by Purviance in September, 1788. The farm upon which he resided in this township is still known as the McClurg farm, and is now the property of William Porter, a descendant of the McClurg family.

Walter Craig was a native of Ireland, born in 1786. When still quite young he came with his father's family to America, and to Washington County, Pa., settling near West Middletown, in the northern part of Hopewell township. On August 24, 1818, Walter Craig purchased property of John Marshall in Cross Creek township. It was the tract "Justice," situated on the waters of Cross Creek, adjoining the lands of William Rea, Nicholas Reed, Thomas McConkle, Thomas Meason, James and Thomas Marshall. In 1818-19, Walter Craig was a member of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives, and in 1820 he removed to this township, to occupy the property he had bought here. In 1828 he became a member of Cross Creek Church, and in 1831 was elected a ruling elder. The latter position he retained during his life. In the year 1838 he was a delegate to the State Constitutional Convention, and from 1843 to 1845, inclusive, was a member of the State Senate. While on a visit to his daughter in Indiana Walter Craig died, Feb. 10, 1875 in the eighty-ninth year of his age.

Hugh Lee came from Ireland to America, and eventually settled in Cross Creek township, on a tract of two hundred and nineteen acres of land purchased of William McFarren April 3, 1826. His purchase was of the tract called "Holmes' Victory," on which James Holmes made settlement in 1774, and for which he received a Virginia certificate in 1780. A part of the tract was sold in 1808 to William McFarren, who sold as above stated to Lee, by whose descendants it is still owned.

Mrs. Hannah Lee, wife of Hugh Lee, and daughter of John and Mary Orr, was born in Cumberland County, Pa., May 2, 1787, and with her parents moved west of the mountains in 1790, and after a time settled at Holliday's Cove, Va. Mrs. Lee was one of the first subjects of what was called the "falling work," a religious revival which visited all the churches in the northern end of Washington County, Pa. She was present at Cross-Roads, Cross Creek, during the falling exercises, and, in company with her mother, attended what was termed the "Big Sacrament" at Upper Buffalo, at which place it was supposed ten thousand persons were present and over fifteen hundred communicants. She was married Aug. 14, 1804, to Hugh Lee, then of Smith, now Cross Creek, township, and removed to her future home.

Hugh Lee became an active elder in the Presbyterian Church of Cross Creek, and died April 24, 1837, at the house of William McLain, Esq., near Claysville, where he was a guest, attending the sessions of Presbytery. Mrs. Lee remained on the old homestead farm for fourteen years, then she removed to the adjoining farm, the home of her son in-law, John S. Duncan; there she lived almost thirty-one years, and died Feb. 24, 1882, of old age and debility. She was the last of the members belonging to the church of Cross Creek at the settlement of Rev. John Stockton, D. D., who, although feeble, was able to be present and officiate at her funeral. She was buried bedside her husband in Cross Creek Cemetery.

The sons of Hugh and Hannah Lee were William, John, and Hugh, Jr. William Lee settled on the homestead which his son, Craig Lee, now occupies. His daughter became the wife of John N. McDonald, of Robinson township. John Lee, second son of Hugh Lee, lives with his sons in Jefferson township. Hugh Lee, Jr., resides in Pittsburgh. A daughter of Hugh Lee, Sr., married John S. Duncan; and another daughter became the wife of Rev. George Marshall, D. D. Of the children of Hugh and Hannah Lee five, two sons and three daughters, are now living.

Villages.- The date of the platting and laying out of Cross Creek village is not accurately determined, but it was about the year 1820. On Jan. 1, 1821, David Wilkin purchased of Henry Graham three acres of ground lying within the present limits of the village, and upon it built the first brick house in the place, the one recently owned and occupied by Rev. Dr. Stockton, who purchased it of Mr. Wilkin. A portion of the dwelling-house of Israel Beabout is said to have been the third house ever put up in Cross Creek village, and was built and occupied by George McClean, a wagon-maker. Among the earliest taverns kept here were those of Alexander McConnell and James Marques, who each kept public-house in 1823 and 1824. In 1825, Joseph Cook opened the first store in the village. In January of that year the post-office was established here, and Mr. Cook was appointed postmaster, the office being in his store. His successor was George McClean, the wagon maker, who removed the post-office to his wagon-shop. John Moore followed Mr. McClean as postmaster, but he only retained the position one year, when Andrew McFarlane assumed the duties for a few months. Dr. Cornelius Summers came next in the list of postmasters, and continued from 1838 to 1841, and from 1845 to 1860, the interval from 1841 to 1845 being held by Benjamin F. Murray. James Donahy was the postmaster from 1860 to 1861, when Andrew McFarlane received the appointment from President Lincoln, and continued in the office until 1881. His son, Samuel T. McFarlane, succeeded him, and held the office until 1881, when John S. Cummings became postmaster, and still holds the office. The village of Cross Creek has one church, a school building, two blacksmith-shops, two wagon-shops, and three stores.

Woodrow Post-office is located on the line between Mount Pleasant and Cross Creek townships. The place received its name from Simeon Woodrow, who owned and operated a saw-mill at this point. The post-office was established here in 1855, with John Morgan as first postmaster. His successor was William S. McCreary. The office is now over the line in Mount Pleasant township.

Another post-office in Cross Creek township is the one at Patterson's Mills, established in 1829. The persons who have held the position of postmaster at this place are James Patterson, Thomas Patterson, Johnson Ellet, and George L. Weigman, the present incumbent. Patterson's Mills Post-office village also has one store, a mill, a school building, and an Associate Reformed Church.

Physicians.- Although the settlement of Cross Creek township began at least as early as 1772, not much mention of resident practicing physicians is made previous to 1815. In that year Dr. Robert Lyle, a son of Hon. Aaron Lyle, and a native of this township, began practice here. He had studied his profession under the instruction of Dr. Kerl, of Hickory village, Mount Pleasant township. In 1820 he removed from Cross Creek to Steubenville, Ohio, and two years later removed thence farther west.

Dr. Murray, of Lancaster County, Pa., came to Cross Creek township in 1820, upon the removal of Dr. Lyle, and very soon followed the regular routine of Dr. Lyle's practice. He also occupied the house in which his predecessor had lived (the present residence of Mrs. Dinsmore), and died there about the year 1830.

Dr. Gladden came from near Canonsburg in 1826, and settled in Cross Creek village for the practice of his profession. He remained here until 1831, when he removed to other parts, and was succeeded by Dr. Henry Hannan, of Pittsburgh. Dr. Hannan's residence here continued until 1836, when he returned to Pittsburgh.

Dr. Robert Anderson was a native of Westmoreland County, Pa., and a graduate of the college at Canonsburg and the Jefferson Medical College at Philadelphia. In the year 1836 he came to reside in Cross Creek township, and remained here until his death, which occurred in 1868. He was a member of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives in 1861, and was an excellent practitioner.

Dr. J. M. Dunn, of Frankfort, Pa., came into Cross Creek village in 1860, and continued here in his professional capacity until 1868, when he removed to Kentucky.

Dr. J. L. Rea was a great-grandson of Squire William Rea and Hon. Aaron Lyle. He was born in Cross Creek township, and graduated from the Jefferson Medical College. He commenced his practice in this section, but during the war of the Rebellion entered the Army of the Potomac as a surgeon. During his service he contracted the disease of which he died Dec. 30, 1869, at the age of thirty-two years.

The present physician, and the only one residing and practicing in this township, is Dr. F. C. M. Stockton, of Cross Creek village. He is a son of the Rev. Dr. Stockton, a graduate of Washington College and of Jefferson Medical College of Philadelphia, and is a prominent member of his profession.

Schools.1- The earliest authentic account of a school in this township that can be found is of one that was taught in the old log church at Cross Creek village, about the year 1782 or 1783, by Joseph Patterson, afterwards a Presbyterian minister, and first pastor of Raccoon congregation, at the village of Candor. It is also thought that Robert McCready, afterwards for a long time justice of the peace, and an elder at Cross Creek village church, taught at Wells Fort at or near the same time. There are pretty reliable accounts of schools being held at houses on farms now owned by A. S. Richey, Esq., John F. Sharp, James Buchanan, Esq., R. T. Johnson, R. W. Wells, R. F. Burton, and at Cross Creek village.

[1 This article on the Cross Creek schools is taken principally from a published account written by James M. K. Reed, Esq.]

About the year 1803 a house was built on the Presbyterian Church property, for the accommodation of the workmen who built the stone church at that place. It was afterwards known as the "study house," and was for a long time used as a school-house. It is said that there was not a sawed piece of timber in it. Robert Lee was the first teacher that we have any account of at this point. Thomas Best taught in the house for many years. During the spring of 1835 the boys of Cross Creek village, thinking the house a disgrace to the place, and being tired of going to school in it, met at night, and with ropes, etc., pulled the logs of one end out. It was used during the following summer, and then abandoned. The school was then kept in the academy building until the erection of the brick school-house.

At the McNary school, on Johnson's farm, among other teachers was a Mr. McCready, a native of Ireland, who had one of his thumbs cut off. He was said to be a very severe and tyrannical teacher. Among the earliest teachers that we have any account of at the McMillen school-house (now owned by J. F. Sharp) was George Miller, and a teacher by the name of Leeper. Hon. William Patterson, who was born at Patterson's Mills in 1796, and commenced going to school at this house, informed the writer that the first teacher that he went to was William McCaskey, about the year 1801. He taught there several terms. McCaskey was a bound boy raised by Judge Edgar, who gave him a good education; he was also a surveyor. He taught at other places.

About the year 1803 a house was built near the residence of Lysander Patterson, Esq., which was occupied about three years. At this house George Davis was the first teacher. The second teacher was James McGee, an Episcopalian. He could not write, but taught writing using brass plates. John Kelley was the third and last teacher at this house. He was considered a good instructor. Among the early teachers was William Rea, who taught for several years, principally at the old house known as the McKibbin school, now the Buchanan farm. Mr. Rea afterwards served as a justice of the peace (appointed in 1823), and was also an elder of Cross Creek congregation. It is thought that Mr. McClain also taught at this house. Mr. McClain wielded the ferule a long time in this township and in different schools. He was appointed justice of the peace in 1818, afterwards removed to East Finley township, and died there. William McCleery taught at Cross Creek village prior to the year 1800.

About the year 1806, Gen. Thomas Patterson and Richard Wells built a school-house on the ridge between Patterson's mill and Wells' mill. In style of architecture, etc., it was considered far in advance of the times, being built of hewed logs. It has a shingle roof, tight board floor, and glass windows, and Mr. Wells put in a ten-plate wood-stove. Gen. Patterson and Mr. Wells hired Mr. James Haney to teach at twelve dollars per month by the year, they being responsible to him for his pay. The teacher had alternate Saturdays to himself. Mr. Haney was also a surveyor, and worked at that on his spare days, surveying many of the farms in that vicinity. He kept a day-book of the attendance of each pupil, and handed the accounts to Patterson and Wells, and they collected the tuitions from such as were able to pay, and those that were unable to were allowed to attend free. Mr. Haney taught there until 1813. Of the pupils of his school many have held high positions of trust and honor. About the same time that this house was built a school-house was built on the farm now owned and occupied by Mr. Thomas McCorkle. Among other teachers here was Thomas Ewing, a native of Ireland, and who came here from Crawford County. He was the grandfather of Judge Ewing, of Pittsburgh, and taught many years in this vicinity.

It is difficult to learn when the school-house on R. W. Wells' farm was built. It stood between the present dwelling of Mr. Wells and the public road, and was burned down about 1812 or 1815. Among the last teachers was Mr. Robert Marques, the father of Rev. John S. Marques, of Pigeon Creek.

About the year 1812 a school-house was built on the farm now occupied by William Dunbar. Among the first teachers here was Richard Freeborn. Israel Bebout taught one year in this house in 1822. Mr. Bebout taught school two terms, and has since served for many years as committeeman and school director in this and Beaver County. He still lives in Cross Creek village, now in his eighty-fourth year.

About the same year, 1812, a house was built near where Hampton Walker now lives. Its location is in Jefferson township, but by a special act of Assembly approved Feb. 14, 1867, the real estate of David S. Walker and Francis Cunningham was annexed to Cross Creek for school purposes. The first teacher here was Andrew McColloch, who taught about three years. William Elder taught one term, then an Irishman by the name of McDermott, who was educated for a Catholic priest. Cornelius Barber taught two years. This was a large and very successful school, and was attended by the Bebouts, Walkers, Grahams, and Van Ordstrands, many of whom are still living, having passed, full of honor, their threescore and ten years. Andrew McColloch was considered a successful teacher in his day. In the year 1835 he held the office of supervisor and constable, and about 1836 he removed with his family to Tuscarawas County, Ohio, where he resided until his death, about 1860. There was also a Mr. Scott taught at that house, and a Miss Ann McDermott.

There was an old school-house near the above building, on the Walker farm, within a few rods of where once stood an old saw-mill. Mr. Joseph Smith taught in this house. He afterwards became an elder of Cross Creek congregation. This building was abandoned in 1810 or 1811.

About this time, or previous, a school was kept for a while where Mr. John Purdy lives, on the farm of Arnold Lawton. A Mr. Pervard was teacher. About the year 1810 or 1812 there was also a school held for a while on the Dinsmore farm, now occupied by Samuel D. White. No particulars can be learned in either of the above cases.

In 1812 a frame school-house was built on the farm now occupied by Robert Vance. It was then in Smith township, but an adjustment of the lines afterwards threw it into Cross Creek. This house, like the one built the same year on the D. S. Walker farm, was a frame; they were the first frame school-houses in the township, and had large windows of glass. The teachers at this house were Thomas Allen, a Mr. Noyes, William Galbraith, Mr. McClure, Mr. Gilton, Alexander McConnell, John Boggs. The house was abandoned for school purposes about the year 1833.

About the year 1810-15, Master Ewing (Thomas) taught for four or five years in an old house on the Lyle farm, now owned by David Gault. We have no account of any other person teaching at that place.

There was a second school-house built on the Buchanan farm near Rea's Rocks, in which Samuel Reed taught several years. Joseph Littlefair and Rev. James Sloan also taught in this house. It was abandoned about the time that the school law came into force. Samuel Reed taught many years in this county, and then removed to Marion County, Ohio, where he died.

About the year 1815 a school-house was built on the south side of the farm of Nathan Patterson, near Patterson's Mills. In this house the teachers were William Smith and Joseph Templeton. Templeton afterwards studied medicine, and located in the borough of Washington. About 1820 the building was removed to the northern part of the farm, near a spring. In this house a Mr. Gilpin taught two or three terms. James Fulton afterwards taught in the same house one term, but refused to teach any longer on account of its being uncomfortable, and in 1833 a new frame building was erected, where Mr. Fulton taught several terms. He was a very successful teacher, a native of New York State. He taught several years in this and adjoining townships, removed to Richland County, Ohio, taught there a while, and afterwards settled near the town of Wabash, in Wabash County, Ind., where he resided until his death. The next teacher here was William P. Sampson, who afterwards went to Kentucky, studied law, and became chief justice of that State. Samuel Reed also taught in this house.

During the summer of 1827 Miss Hettie Reed taught in the old cabin on the farm owned by James Simpson. She afterwards taught two or three terms in the old house that stood near the present residence of Simon Marques.

About the year 1822 a school-house was built on the line between the farms of A. S. Richey and William Perry. Thomas Ewing taught in the house a while, and was succeeded by Robert Adams. About the year 1828 a school-house was built at the lower end of John N. Walker's lane, on the corner of the farm of John Lawton, Sr. The teachers at the house were Peter Lawton, Joseph Cummins, Nancy Wishart, David Wishart, and John Powlson. This house was used eight or ten years for schools. Previous to the erection of this building there was a school kept in an old house near the corner of the farm of John N. Walker. In 1833 a school-house was built on the farm of Nicholas Reed, now owned by J. M. K. Reed. The teachers in this house were Samuel Reed and Richard Kersams. About the year 1830, Rev. Daniel R. Hervey built a house at his residence near Woodrow P. O., where a student from Jefferson College, Canonsburg, taught one season.

At the convention of school directors held during the fall of 1834, relative to the acceptance of the provisions and requirements of the public school law passed in that year, Hon. William Patterson was the delegate from Cross Creek township, and advocated the acceptance of the school law. Robert Patterson, of Smith township, presided at that meeting, and the law was adopted by all the townships in the county, with five exceptions. The first board of school directors of Cross Creek township under that law were Moses Lyle, Eben Smith, Alexander Walker, Gen. James Lee, Nathan Patterson, and the Hon. William Patterson.

Hon. William Patterson was president of the first convention of school directors to elect a county superintendent, when John L. Gow, Esq., was elected. He was also Speaker of the House of Representatives during the session of 1834, when the school law was passed.

The school law of 1834 having come in force and the township being divided into sub-districts, about the year 1836-37 school-houses were built on farms of James McNary, Nancy Huston, and John N. Walker. The house at McNary's was used until the spring of 1855. The teachers in this house were W. Huston Walker, afterwards Reverend; Alexander Hays; John Campbell; David R. Campbell, afterwards Presbyterian minister; Alexander Thompson, Associate minister; Serissa Lyle; William P. Sampson, afterwards C. J. of Kentucky; Mary A. Vincent; John McCarrell, afterwards studied medicine, now at Wellsville, Ohio; A. W. Guthrie, afterwards studied medicine, died at Germano, Ohio; Mr. ____ Wallace; James P. Able, taught three or four years, and died of consumption; Margaret Galbraith; Thomas P. Smith; Daniel Donahoo, afterwards studied law; R. Lyle White, who studied law and since became an editor; Mr. ____ Johnson; Nancy Glass; J. Boyd Stephens, taught two terms, is now a Presbyterian minister; John McKee; J. M. K. Reed, taught two terms; Adaline Cassidy; Mary E. Curry; Miss Cassidy taught for several years; and Miss Eva Simmons taught a subscription school one summer.

Among other teachers at Rea's School (on Nancy Huston's farm) were George W. Forrester, John W. White, Simon Webster French, James A. Stewart, Miss Jane S. Ramsey, Charles C. Fulton, R. T. Johnson, J. M. K. Reed, and Miles W. Marques. Among others who taught at Bushy Rock were Robert Curry, P. D., now of Nebraska Normal School; Matthew Templeton, Mary Grier, Thomas W. Thompson, J. M. K. Reed, M. W. Marques, Sarah A. Maxwell, William Plummer, Alexander E. Walker, Isaac M. Lawton, J. Edgar Rankin, William E. Scott, and S. H. Lawton.

In the year 1846 the citizens of West Point School built a brick house on a lot of land containing one acre, deeded in fee simple by Mary P. Smith for school purposes. Among others who taught in this house were Hon. George W. Miller, R. T. Johnson, Rev. John M. Smith, J. S. Gormly, H. P. Durant, J. M. K. Reed, S. J. Jeffrey, Jane S. Ramsey, Hon. Samuel F. Patterson, William P. Montgomery, and W. W. Teagarden.

In September, 1865, the two schools in Cross Creek village were consolidated and graded, the higher department being taught in the old academy by Josiah Marques and the primary by Eva Simmons. At a meeting of the school board, Sept. 28, 1854, a uniform series of text-books was adopted for the first time, and the board resolved to encourage the attendance of the teachers at the County Institute by continuing their pay during said attendance.

When the township of Cross Creek was first divided into districts the number was ten, with the following designating names: No. 1, Nosco Hall; No. 2, Bunker Hill; No. 3, Cemetery; No. 4, White Oaks; No 5, West Point; No. 6, Willow Valley; No. 7, Bushy Rock; No. 8, Beech Knob; No. 9, Limestone Lane; No. 10, Buckeye Valley. In 1853, when the territory comprising Jefferson township was set off, some of the numbers were changed and Nos. 2 and 3 were consolidated and known thereafter as Cross Creek Village District.

In 1863 Cross Creek township had nine school districts, in which ten teachers taught, and two hundred and ninety-seven pupils were enrolled; $98.40 was received from the State, $1082.50 from other sources, and the cost of the schools for the year was $1132.23. In 1873 a new school building was erected at Patterson's Mills, at a cost of $2000. It was a building two stories in height, and well equipped with the best of school furniture and apparatus. In that year the township was divided into eleven districts, and eleven teachers were employed. Two hundred and eighty pupils were enrolled. The amount of State money received was $164.92, the sum received from other sources $4167.29, and the total expenditures amounted to $4404.81. In 1880 the districts of the township had been again reduced to nine, in which nine teachers were employed. Three hundred and thirty-nine pupils were enrolled. The receipts from all the sources for schools amounted to $1931.13, and the expenditures for the school year aggregated $1791.87.

Cross Creek Academy, established in 1828, has already been mentioned in Dr. Brownson's article on "Higher Education," in the general history of the county.

Justices of the Peace.- The following is a list of persons who were and have been appointed and elected to the office of justice of the peace in Cross Creek township from 1790 to the present time, except for the period from 1803 to 1838,1 viz.:

Henry Graham, Aug. 24, 1790
Samuel Smith, April 11, 1796
George Elliot, April 14, 1840
James Donahoo, April 14, 1840; April 15, 1845
John Cole, April 15, 1845
James Donahoo, April 10, 1855
John Cole, April 9, 1850
James Donahoo, April 10, 1855
John S. Duncan, April 12, 1859
Thos. M. Patterson, April 10, 1860
James Donahoo, April 21, 1862
A. E. Walker, April 20, 1864
James Donahoo, April 9, 1867; April 12, 1872
A. E. Walker, Jan. 9, 1874
John S. Duncan, April 28, 1874
A. E. Walker, May 24, 1874
Lysander Patterson, March 16, 1876
James M. K. Reed, March 21, 1877
Lysander Patterson, March 9, 1881

Presbyterian Church of Cross Creek.2- The region of country called Cross Creek began to be settled about the year 1770-71. The first settlers were mostly Scotch-Irish. Some came directly from the north of Ireland and west of Scotland, some from York County, Pa., and from Winchester, Va., and a few from Mecklenburg, N. C. Among these pioneers were some pious men, who began to hold meetings for worship as early as 1776-77. Two such societies were organized within the bounds of Cross Creek. One was on Irish Ridge. The leading members of this society were John Morrison and Robert McCready (both of whom afterwards became ruling elders of the church of Cross Creek), William McCandless and Samuel Strain. The other society held their meetings at the house of Maj. William Vance, and in the houses around. The leaders here were Maj. William Vance, James Campbell, John Stone, Robert Barr, and William Wilson. For several years the settlers were greatly harassed by incursions of hostile Indians. Not a few of those who fell under their murderous tomahawks lie in the burying-ground of this congregation. From these incursions the people fled into Vance's and Well's Forts; the former one mile north, and the latter five miles west of this church. In these forts social and afterwards public worship was kept up for about seven years, especially in summer and autumn, the seasons when the Indians were wont to make their raids. At these meetings in Vance's Fort some seven or eight persons were converted. Among them were Thomas Marques and his wife Jane. Mr. Marques subsequently became first a ruling elder, and afterwards a pastor of this congregation. The Rev. James Powers, from the Forks of Youghiogheny, visited this region, and preached the first gospel sermon ever heard in it, on the 14th of September, 1778. This was under an oak tree just outside the gate of Vance's Fort. After the sermon twenty-one children were baptized. Among them was the first-born of Mr. and Mrs. Marques.

[1Cross Creek township was a separate justice's district from its erection in 1790 till the erection of election districts, May 4, 1803, when it became embraced with other territory in District No. 3, and so remained till 1838, when the office of justice became elective, and the township an independent district. The names of the justices who held jurisdiction within this township during the period from 1803 to 1838 will be found included in the list of justices of Hopewell township. In 1853 Jefferson was taken from the territory of Cross Creek and made an independent township.]

[2Taken from a historical sketch of the church, by the Rev. John Stockton, D. D.]

In April, 1779, the Rev. Joseph Smith, from York County, Pa., visited this region and preached several sermons. After his return home the Rev. John McMillan (who had come with his family to Chartiers in 1778) preached a few sermons in the bounds of Cross Creek. These sermons greatly stirred up the people to obtain the stated ministrations of the gospel among them. In the early summer of 1779, James Edgar came from York County, Pa., and purchased a farm in Cross Creek [then Smith] township. About the same time Messrs. William Smiley and Robert Caldwell and others came from the same region (Chanceford and Slate Ridge) to Upper Buffalo. These likewise desiring the ministrations of the gospel; the two companies met at the house of James Marshel, midway between Buffalo and Cross Creek, and made out a call for the Rev. Joseph Smith, who had been their minister in York County. This call was dated June 21, 1779. The salary promised was seventy-five pounds. This call was carried down to the Presbytery of New Castle, then met at Carlisle, by Mr. Edgar, and was accepted on the 27th of October, 1779. In the summer of that year a committee of three persons from Cross Creek and three from Upper Buffalo were appointed to locate sites for the two meeting-houses. The three members of the committee from Cross Creek were Maj. William Vance, Robert McCready, and Henry Graham, and Messrs. William Smiley and Robert Caldwell were two of the members from Buffalo. These located the sites where the houses now stand. Henry Graham, Esq., donated the land for the church at Cross Creek.

In the autumn of 1779 the Rev. Joseph Smith removed with his family to his new charge. Shortly after his arrival three ruling elders were chosen by vote of the congregation, viz.: James Edgar, John Morrison, and George Marques. Mr. Edgar had been ordained an elder in York County. Mr. Marques was appointed the first leader of the singing in the church. In the autumn of 1779, mainly through the influence of Mr. Edgar, Joseph Patterson removed from York County into Cross Creek. He was a Seceder from the north of Ireland; had been a school-teacher in York County; was a ardently pious man; became an active leader in meetings for social worship; afterwards a ruling elder in the church of Cross Creek; subsequently a minister of the gospel, and for many years was the faithful, successful, and greatly beloved pastor of the congregation of Raccoon Church.

In the winter of 1781-82 there was a considerable revival in the congregations of Upper Buffalo and Cross Creek. In the autumn of 1782 the sacrament of the Lord's Supper was administered for the first time in Cross Creek. About fifty persons from both of the congregations were received into full membership. This work continued with but little abatement for six or seven years. In June, 1787, about fifty members were added to the church of Cross Creek. Mr. Smith preached his last sermon at Cross Creek (from Galations i.8), and died of fever and inflammation of the brain on the 19th of April, 1792, in the fifty-sixth year of his age. His remains rest in the cemetery of Upper Buffalo. The epitaph recorded on his tombstone was written by his intimate friend and fellow-laborer, Rev. Thaddeus Dodd, of Ten-Mile, Pa.

In the winter of 1782-83 the first addition was made to the session. This addition was made by the appointment of the session, and consisted of Thomas Marques, Joseph Patterson, and Joseph Vance. Near the end of Mr. Smith's pastorate another addition was made, consisting of Robert McCready, Esq., William Rea, Esq., Henry Graham, Esq., Robert Lyle, Hugh Newell, and Thomas Marshall. They were elected by the people, and this has continued ever since to be the mode of addition. These were ordained and installed by the Rev. James Hughs, pastor of the congregation of West Liberty, after the decease of Mr. Smith. After being supplied by the Presbytery for a little more than a year, Cross Creek gave a unanimous call to the Rev. Thomas Marques to become their pastor, which was accepted. The preaching of Mr. Marques was very popular, and soon he received three calls for his ministerial services, - one from the united congregations of Bethel and Ebenezer, another from Ten-Mile, and another from Cross Creek. The call from Cross Creek (dated Oct. 18, 1793), was accepted on the 23d of April, 1794, and as the congregation of Cross Creek was under the care of the Presbytery of Ohio, he was dismissed to put himself under the care of that Presbytery, and was by them ordained and installed on the 13th of June following. About the same time Upper Buffalo had given a call to the Rev. David Smith, son of their former pastor, which he held in his hands for consideration, and by agreement Mr. Marques was to supply their pulpit half of the time till they obtained a pastor. This he continued to do till the beginning of the year 1798. From that date all his ministerial labors were given to Cross Creek till October, 1826, - a little over thirty-two years from the beginning of his pastorate.

Under the ministry of Mr. Marques a revival began in 1799. This brought about thirty members into the church. A season of great religious declension followed. In the summer of 1802 there began to be an increased interest on the subject of religion, and some additions were made to the church. This feeling increased till on the 5th of October what has been called "the great revival" was ushered in. This work was attended by extraordinary bodily exercises. This exercise was never relied upon by the ministers and elders of the Presbytery as evidence of true religion. Some of the subjects never became pious; some who were eminently pious were the subjects of it; and not a few of the subjects became hopefully pious, and held fast and adorned their profession till death. This revival continued through the years 1803-4, and brought into the church about one hundred members. During this pastorate two additions were made to the session: in 1807, John Wilkin, Esq., Thomas Smith, Esq., John Marques, Hugh Edgar, and Samuel McKibben; and in 1818, John Henry, James Fleming, George Newell, Hugh Lee, George Miller, Andrew Farrer, and Joseph Smith.

Mr. Marques was a natural orator. The tones of his voice were so musical that he was commonly called the "Silver-tongued Marques." Before resigning his charge in 1825 he earnestly requested the Rev. John Stockton to consent to become his successor, and used all his influence to effect that end. Shortly after seeing his wish accomplished he went on a visit to Bellefontaine, Ohio, to visit his son-in-law, Rev. Joseph Stevenson, and while there was taken ill with fever, and died on the 27th of September, 1827, in the seventy-fourth year of his age.

The Rev. John Stockton was descended from Scotch-Irish ancestors. His great-grandfather, his grandfather, and his father were ruling elders in the Presbyterian Church, while many of his near relatives were ministers and elders in the same church. He was born in the valley of Chartiers, near Washington, Pa., on the 18th of November, 1803; graduated at Washington College Oct. 3, 1820; studied theology with several others under the direction of Dr. John Anderson, of Upper Buffalo, and the Hebrew language and church history with Dr. Andrew Wylie, president of Washington College, for three years; was licensed to preach the gospel by the Presbytery of Washington April 20, 1825, and afterwards spent a year at Princeton Theological Seminary. Shortly afterwards he received two unanimous calls, one from the congregation at Congruity, in the Presbytery of Blairsville, the other from Cross Creek. After consulting with Messrs. Anderson, McCurdy, Wylie, and O. Jennings, and the congregation agreeing to be satisfied with whatever ministerial services he might be able to give them, he accepted the call of Cross Creek in April, 1827. He began to preach statedly on the first Sabbath of May, and was ordained and installed on the 20th of June following. In these services the pastor elect preached a trial sermon on a text chosen for the occasion by Mr. McCurdy, viz.: Ps. cxxv. 1: "They that trust in the Lord." etc. Dr. Jennings preached the ordination sermon from Col. iv. 17: "Take heed to the ministry." etc., and Dr. Anderson gave the charges to the pastor and the congregation.

In the winter of 1827-28 another revival began in Cross Creek. This work spread over every part of the congregation, and continued for between four and five years. And so powerful was it that at one time one hundred and twenty persons applied for privilege to come to the Lord's table. Again, in 1835, 1836, and 1837, was another revival, and some one hundred and forty members were added. Again, in 1840, 1841, and 1842, there was another season of refreshing, when about one hundred persons were converted. At the commencement of this pastorate the session consisted of the following members, viz.: Hon. Joseph Vance, Robert McCready, Esq., Samuel McKibben, George Miller, James Fleming, Andrew Farrar, Hugh Lee, and George Newell. In 1831, Hon. Walter Craig, and Messrs. William Cowen, Ebenezer Smith, and John Armspoker were added. In 1837, Gen. James Lee, Abraham Barber, and James Dinsmore were installed: in 1843, Messrs. George Miller, Jr., Robert Lee, Thomas Wilkin, and John McKibben; in 1854, Messrs. Joseph Graham, Joseph Vance, Jr., and Andrew Reed; in 1858, Messrs. William Lee, Russell T. Johnson, and Samuel Cowen; in 1886, Messrs. James Walker and William Campbell; and in 1870, Messrs. Samuel White, David Gault, Richard Wells, and James Donahoo, Esq. In 1866, Samuel White and John D. Cowen were chosen and ordained to be deacons, and in 1876, Messrs. Isaac M. Lawton, Daniel Haines, John M. Boyce, and William K. Lyle were added to the board.

The congregation of Cross Creek has erected in succession five houses of worship, viz.: The first in 1779 of unhewed logs, twenty-six feet long by twenty-two feet wide; the second in 1784 of hewed logs, sixty feet by thirty, one story high, and pulpit in the side. To this afterwards another story and a gallery were added. This house was burned (supposed to have been fired by an incendiary) on Sabbath morning, April 20, 1803. Forthwith the congregation built another house of stone, fifty-six feet square. This was the house in which the congregation worshiped at the beginning of the pastorate of Mr. Stockton. This house becoming too small, another was erected of brick in 1830, seventy-six by fifty-six, with a gallery. The walls of this house becoming cracked, and in the opinion of some unsafe, were taken down, and the present house built in 1864 on the same site. This house is of brick, eighty-two feet by fifty-four, with a lecture-room, a session-room, and a library-room in the basement.

The writer of the preceding historical sketch of the Presbyterian Church of Cross Creek, its venerable and beloved pastor, the Rev. John Stockton, completed a full half-century in his pastorate. Feeling the infirmities of age increasing upon him, he desired to retire from the charge of the congregation at the end of his fifty years of service here, and accordingly, about three months before that time would expire, on the 29th of March, 1877, he addressed to the session a letter of resignation, expressing the wish that the pastoral relation should be dissolved on the 20th of June following, and asking that they unite with him in a request to the Presbytery to accept his resignation. In response to this letter the church met on the 2d of April, 1877, and gave formal but regretful assent to Dr. Stockton's proposal by the passage of resolutions, the sixth of which was as follows: "That though thus consenting in these providential circumstances to the dissolution of the pastoral relation, and the release of Dr. Stockton from the responsibility of jurisdiction and labor, yet it is our earnest wish that he will accept, and that the Presbytery will grant to him, the title of 'Pastor Emeritus' of this church." Messrs. I. M. Lawton and H. C. Anderson were appointed to present the letter of Dr. Stockton and the resolutions of the congregation to the Presbytery, which, at its next meeting at Burgettstown, April 24, 1877, took the desired action, accepting Mr. Stockton's resignation, and conferring on him the title "Pastor Emeritus."

Agreeably to the request of this congregation, the Presbytery met on the 20th of June following at the Cross Creek Church, whence an adjournment was made to the grove near the village, where the people and members of Presbytery present listened to an address by Dr. Stockton embracing a history of his long pastorate. The Rev. J. S. Marques spoke on behalf of the congregation, and the Rev. J. I. Brownson on behalf of the Presbytery. In the address of Dr. Stockton he said that during the ministry of the Rev. Joseph Smith between one hundred and two hundred members were added to the church; that under Rev. Thomas Marques four hundred members were gathered into its fold; that during his own pastorate fifteen hundred and forty-five were enrolled, more than one hundred had become ruling elders, forty-three had become ministers of the gospel, and others had filled important places in the State. Of all who were members when his pastorate commenced, a half-century before, only one, he said, then remained, "a venerable mother in Israel, who is with us today, in the ninety-first year of her age." This old lady (Mrs. Hannah Lee) lived nearly five years longer, and died Feb. 24, 1882, in her ninety-sixth year. Her funeral was attended by her old pastor only about two months before his death.

After his retirement from the pastoral charge of this church, Dr. Stockton passed the remainder of his useful life in the quiet of his home at Cross Creek village. He died on Friday, May 5, 1882, in the seventy-ninth year of his age. The funeral services were held at the church on the 8th of May. "About thirty ministers were present. The services were introduced with a brief and affectionate statement by the present faithful pastor, the Rev. W. H. McCaughey, Dr. Stockton's successor; the Scriptures were read by the Rev. Smith F. Grier, and a prayer was offered by the venerable Dr. Beatty, of Steubenville, Ohio. Then came three most suitable and timely addresses by members of the Presbytery. The first was delivered by Dr. J. I. Brownson, who gave a beautiful life-picture of Dr. Stockton as a preacher, friend, scholar, educator, theologian, and presbyter, having known him intimately for more that thirty-three years. He was always the same in sunshine and in storms, in safety and danger. He was a wise counselor. He was always firm and decided, but never rash nor reckless. He was one of the most prudent men of his day. This was owing to his excellent judgment and profound common sense. These never failed him, but served as regulators to all his actions, and a balance-wheel to all his movements. He was extremely modest and unassuming. He made no display of his power or parade about his learning. But the speaker had no time to portray all the noble traits of character. Dr. Stockton was an eminent Christian man. His piety was not of the negative kind, but was a life in the soul, a principle that regulated all his actions. His life was an embodiment of all the truths he so ably preached for more than fifty-five years." The address of Dr. Brownson was followed by others by the Rev. W. H. Lester, Rev. John S. Marques, and Rev. Dr. C. C. Beatty. The services were of an unusually impressive character and attended by a great assemblage of people.

The successor of Dr. Stockton and present pastor of this church is the Rev. W. H. McCaughey, who first preached here as a supply July 8, 1877, about two weeks after Dr. Stockton's retirement. A call was extended to him on the 13th of August, which was accepted, and he was ordained and installed on the 31st of October, 1877. In 1878 a lot was purchased and a parsonage built upon it at a cost of about two thousand five hundred dollars. The present membership of the church is two hundred and twenty-five.

Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church1 at Patterson's Mills.- During the years 1864 and 1865, Rev. Alexander Weills, a Lutheran minister, preached part of his time at the school-house at Patterson's Mills. In the spring of 1866, Rev. James Calderhead, an Associate Reformed Presbyterian minister, came into the vicinity and preached, and on the 8th of July, 1866, he organized the present congregation with forty members. Thomas McCorkle, William J. Patterson, and James G. Smiley were the first elders, and were ordained May 10, 1867. Rev. Mr. Calderhead supplied the congregation until May, 1867. The Rev. W. M. McElwee then came and supplied until 1869, when he was followed by Rev. W. S. Moffitt, who supplied during part of the year 1869.

[1By James M. K. Reed.]

During the summer of 1869 the congregation, which was still worshiping in the school-house, built a frame church at a cost of about $2500, on one acre of land purchased from Samuel M. Cowen for $100. On the first Sabbath of November of the same year the new church was dedicated to the worship of Almighty God, the Rev. Moffitt holding communion services at that time. During the spring and summer of 1870, Rev. James A. Myers, of Kentucky, supplied the pulpit. On Wednesday, August 10th of the same year, Rev. W. S. Moffitt preached, and moderated a call for the Rev. Mr. Myers for two-thirds of his time and services, which call was accepted, and on Nov. 6, 1870, Mr. Myers preached his first sermon as pastor of this congregation, and on the 24th of April, 1871, he was installed by Presbytery, the Revs. Moffitt and Barrowes delivering the charges. Mr. Myers devoted the remaining one-third of his time to a congregation in West Virginia known as Roach's.

On the 21st of May, 1877, James M. K. Reed and W. C. Jackson were elected elders, and soon after Mr. Jackson was installed, but Reed declined. A Bible-class and Sabbath-school was formed in 1865, and continues to meet during the summer seasons.

Rev. Mr. Myers continued with much acceptance as pastor until May, 1881, when, on account of ill health of himself and family, he was constrained to resign his charge. Rev. R. H. McAulay has since supplied the pulpit. On the 14th of September, 1874, a choir was appointed with Joseph R. Brown as leader, which position he still retains. On the 28th of November, 1871, the first interment in the burial-ground connected with this church was made, - a young son of Simeon Marques.



James Patterson, the elder, was born in Ireland in 1708, emigrated to America in 1728, and settled in Little Britain township, Lancaster Co., Pa. There he married and raised a family of ten children, five sons and five daughters. The sons were William, John, Samuel, James, and Thomas. The first-named son, William Patterson, was born in 1733. He was twice married. His first wife was Rosanna Scott, who died April 5, 1769. By her he had these children: Mary, Moses, Samuel, Thomas, and James. April 10, 1770, William married his second wife, Elizabeth Brown, by whom he had ten children, - John, Rosanna, William, Nathaniel, Rachel, Elizabeth, Josiah, Hannah, Nathan, and Eleanor. In 1779, William removed with his family to Washington County, Pa., and settled in Cross Creek township upon a farm now owned by his great-grandson, R. M. Patterson, where he died June 29, 1818. His wife, Elizabeth Brown, died about the year 1828. Their son, "Gen." Thomas Patterson, was born in Lancaster County, Pa., Oct. 1, 1764, and was fifteen years of age when he came with his parents to Washington County. He was a farmer and miller, was a prominent and influential citizen, representing Washington County for a number of years in the United States Congress, and died Nov. 17, 1841. About the year 1795 he married Elizabeth Finley, of Westmoreland County, Pa. She died Jan. 6, 1837. They had twelve children. Two died in infancy. Those who grew to manhood and womanhood were William, James, Samuel, Mary, John, Thomas, Finley, Elizabeth, Moses, and Rosanna.

James, the second son of Gen. Thomas and Elizabeth (Finley) Patterson, and whose portrait is here given, was born in Cross Creek township, April 24, 1798. His home was always in the township where he was born, and the principal business of his life was farming. But when a young man he was employed in his father's mill, and was at one time engaged in merchandising. In 1837 he moved to the farm now the home of his son, T. M. Patterson, where he died Aug. 17, 1861. He was married June 29, 1820, to Eliza Walker, daughter of Alexander and Elizabeth (Norris) Walker, of Cross Creek township. Their children were eleven in number. The oldest and youngest died in infancy. Those who grew up and married are Elizabeth, the wife of Russell T. Johnson; Mary, the wife of Richard Wells; Thomas M., married to Sarah J. Barber, is a farmer in Cross Creek township; Alexander W., married Jane Hodgens. He is a wool dealer, and resides in New York City; Jane, the wife of Robert Marques, died May 29, 1859, aged twenty-seven years; Ambrose, married Margaret A. Richey, and resides in Plattsmouth, Neb.; James M., married Eleanor Campbell, and resides in Plattsmouth, Neb.; David F., married Mary Gardner, and is a lawyer, residing in Allegheny City; Emily A. is the wife of Samuel Latta, and resides in Cass County, Neb.

In politics James Patterson was a decided Democrat, but not so well known in the party councils as his brothers, Finley, William, and John, who were members of the General Assembly of the State. Trained by a father who was proverbial for his honesty, his life was marked by strict integrity in all business transactions. As a business man, he was one of the most successful in the county, winning wealth and position without sacrificing any of those exalted characteristics which betoken the honest man and pure citizen. For nearly thirty-four years he was a member of the Presbyterian Church of Cross Creek, Pa., and as Providence had put him in trust of ample means, he gave a liberal support to all the institutions of the gospel, especially to those schemes of benevolence in which the Presbyterian Church in engaged. During many painful and lingering months of sickness he was sustained and cheered by the promises of the gospel, and when he passed through the dark valley of the shadow of death, the rod and staff of the Shepherd of Israel so comforted him that he feared no evil.


Hon. Walter Craig was born in Ireland Dec. 1, 1786. He was the youngest in a family of seven children, and when six years of age he came with his family to America, and settled near West Middletown, Washington Co., Pa. He received a good English education, and learned the business of surveying. He was also in early life a "down" river trader. In 1818-19 he was a member of the House of Representatives of the State. In 1837-38 he was a member of the State Constitutional Convention. In 1843, '44, and '45 he was a member of the State Senate. He also held important county offices. All of these trusts he fulfilled with honor to himself and profit to the State. His character for incorruptible integrity was not excelled by any of his compeers. A part of his life was spent in farming, but about 1830 he sold his farm and engaged in mercantile pursuits in the village of Cross Creek, where he continued for about ten years, after which he retired from active business.

Aug. 3, 1819, he was married to Elizabeth Scott, who was born in Washington County, Pa., Aug. 8, 1794. She died Aug. 18, 1866. The children by this marriage were Jane, the wife of Maj. William Lee; Margaret A., the widow of Dr. P. W. Dryden, deceased, of Christian County, Ky.; Elizabeth, the wife of Rev. A. H. Kerr, of Rochester, Minn.; David married Amanda White. He was a prominent lawyer of New Castle, Lawrence Co., Pa. He was a member of the convention which formed the present Constitution of the State, and died Nov. 10, 1873; John married Catharine Phipps. She died in 1852, and he has since spent much of his time in the western country. Henry Martin married Mary Templeton and resides in Nebraska; Joseph died in 1855, aged twenty-one years; three others, Walter Scott, William, and Walter Stockton, died in infancy.

In 1828, Hon. Walter Craig became a member, and in 1831 was elected, ordained, and installed as a ruling elder in the Presbyterian Church of Cross Creek, Pa., and continued to be one of its strongest pillars to his death. He was wise in counsel, remarkably attentive to all the ordinances of divine worship, and ever ready to sacrifice his time, labor, and money to promote the cause of Christ. He died Feb. 10, 1875, at the house of his daughter in the State of Indiana, whither he had gone on a visit, and at his request his flesh was brought to sleep with the dust of his deceased wife in the cemetery of Cross Creek, Pa. "Mark the perfect man and behold the upright; for the end of that man is peace."


David Walker, grandfather of John N. Walker, was a native of New Jersey, and his wife was Elizabeth Elliott, of the same State. Soon after their marriage they settled in Huntingdon County, Pa., where their ten children were born. The oldest of these children, Alexander Walker, born in 1774, settled in Cross Creek (now Jefferson) township, Washington County, Pa., in 1795. He was a farmer, and in 1800 married Elizabeth Norris, by whom he had twelve children, two of whom died young. Those who grew up and married were Eliza, James, John N., Susan, Alexander, Mary A., David S., Isabel, Drucilla, and Samuel.

Alexander Walker died in 1855, and his wife, Elizabeth Norris, in 1866.

John N. Walker was born in what is now Jefferson township, Washington County, June 24, 1808, and died in Cross Creek township Feb. 15, 1882. He was a lifelong farmer. Until twenty-one years of age he worked upon his father's place, and from that until his death upon the farm now owned by his son, John M. Walker. Nov. 18, 1830, he married Anna Vance, who died May 15, 1870. They had twelve children, none of whom are now living. Mr. Walker was thoroughly in earnest in whatever he undertook, energetic, hard-working, and diligent. His habits were temperate and regular; his manners unassuming. His business capacity enabled him to accumulate enough to give each of his children a fair start in life. He was for many years a member of the Presbyterian Church.

He early identified himself with the Democratic party, and always advocated its principles. He held important township offices, and in 1855 was elected to the office of county commissioner, which he filled for three years. In 1869 he was a candidate for the State Assembly, and carried his native county, but was defeated in Beaver County, which was then a part of the legislative district. In all public positions he labored for the welfare of those he represented.


David S. Walker was born in Cross Creek township, Washington County, Pa., July 5, 1816. His early life was marked by no special incident, and he entered upon the threshold of manhood possessed of a strong constitution and habits of industry, and with traits of character which distinguished him through life as generous-hearted, honest, and true. He acted from convictions, and no temptation or influence could swerve him from the path of honor and duty. He was truly patriotic, and was an earnest advocate of the free institutions of his country. He was married March 8, 1838, to Eliza Vance, and settled in his native locality, where, by his industry and frugality, he acquired considerable wealth, and became the owner of one of the finest agricultural farms in the vicinity, upon which he lived until 1875, when he retired from active business pursuits and moved to Burgettstown, Pa., at which place he died in May, 1877. He was a great admirer of curiosities and the natural scenery of his country, and visited and traveled in almost every State of the Union during the latter years of his life. He was one of the early excursionists to California over the Pacific Railroad after its completion. Possessed of remarkable descriptive powers, it was always a treat to his friends and neighbors to engage him in conversation after his return from such visits. As a citizen, he was enterprising and identified with the leading industries and improvements of the community in which he moved. He was frequently chosen a juror in the State and United States Courts, and in 1876 was a candidate for the State Legislature. As a friend, he was all that could be asked or expected. He was frank and generous, with no jealousy in his nature. Of him it can be truly said, "His words gave courage and new strength to every heart." He was always a liberal contributor to benevolent objects, and took great interest in the welfare of the needy and oppressed. As a husband and father, he was devoted to his family. He loved to see others happy, and found much of his enjoyment in the happiness of those who surrounded him. He had no personal enemies, and his generous heart had no place for enmity. His children were seven in number. One, Eva, died in infancy. His oldest son, William H. Harrison Walker, enlisted as a soldier in the civil war. He was the chief musician in Capt. Templeton's company, and died Oct. 4, 1861, in his twenty-third year. The others are Mary, Anne, Alexander H., Alice, and Jane.


The grandparents of Maj. William Lee, Hugh and Mary Lee, emigrated from Ireland to America in 1789, and with their family of five sons and three daughters settled in Washington County, Pa. They purchased one hundred and sixty acres of land, and cleared and improved the same. The children all married, and all left the old homestead except Hugh, the father of Maj. William, who remained with his parents, and at their deaths, about the year 1815, became the owner of the land by will. In the same year he purchased one hundred and sixty acres adjoining what he had inherited. At that time business was very depressed from the effects of the war of 1812, and wheat was the principal product of his farm, and sold as low as twenty-five cents per bushel. Sheep-raising, now one of the principal industries of Washington County, was then confined to a few coarse ones for family use. In 1817, Hugh Lee, Gen. Thomas Patterson, and William Vance purchased a few fine sheep from the importation of Wells and Dickerson. The flocks steadily increased, others em- barked in the same business, and it grew until it became the staple industry of the county.

In 1804, Hugh Lee married Hannah Orr. They had ten children, five of whom are yet living. Hugh Lee died in 1837. His wife, Hannah (Orr) Lee, died in 1882, in her ninety-fifth year. Maj. William Lee, the oldest son of Hugh and Hannah (Orr) Lee, was born in 1807. He became the owner of the Lee homestead in 1835, it being willed to him by his father. In 1836 he married Jane, eldest daughter of Hon. Walter Craig. His life business has been farming and stock-raising. In 1876 he divided his property among his children, and has since been living a retired life. He holds a commission as major in the State militia from Governor David R. Porter. He is a member of the Presbyterian Church, in which he has been an elder since 1858. His grandfather and father were elders in the same church. Maj. Lee's success in life is the result of earnest purpose, determination which never flagged, exactness and promptness in the transaction of business, a deep sympathy with others' wants, a sacred regard for his word, and a faithful discharge of all obligations, with a settled purpose of right which knows no such word as fail. Although nearly as old as the century, he is still strong in body and mind, and enjoys the prosperity and society of his children and neighbors. His children, all of whom are living, are Hugh, a farmer in Cross Creek township, married to Marion Stockton, daughter of the Rev. John Stockton, D. D.; Elizabeth Mary, the wife of John N. McDonald, of McDonald's Station, Washington Co., Pa.; Anna, the wife of Richard V. Johnson, of North Strabane township, Washington Co.; Walter C., married to Thomasine Buchanan, owns and resides upon the farm upon which his great-grandfather settled; Hannah is unmarried and resides with her parents; John S. is unmarried and resides upon a farm near his father's home.

*Boyd Crumrine, "History of Washington County, Pennsylvania with Biographical Sketches of Many of Its Pioneers and Prominent Men" (Philadelphia: L. H. Leverts & Co., 1882).

Transcribed by John E. Mellick of [TBD] in April 1998. Published in may 1998 on the Washington County, PA USGenWeb pages at

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